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Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Daily Current Affairs, 16th July 2019

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1) World Bank offer $250 million to Kerala
•World Bank offers a loan of $250 million to the Kerala Government for the Resilient Kerala project, aimed at enhancing the state’s resilience against the impacts of natural disasters and climate change.

2) U.S. sets $5 bn fine for Facebook
•U.S.’s Federal Trade Commission have approved a $5 billion penalty to be levied on Facebook. The penalty have been approved to settle a probe into the social network’sprivacy and data protection lapses. It would be the largest penalty ever imposed by the FTC for privacy violations.

3) U.S. celebrates 50 years of the Apollo 11 mission
•U.S. celebrates the Apollo 11 mission’s 50th year anniversary. In the celebrations, new statues of Astronaut Neil Armstrong were unveiled and an education centre was dedicated to him in Ohio, US.

4) 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO
•43rd session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO was held in Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan from 30 June to 10 July 2019. In the meeting, UNESCO named 29 new World Heritage sites for 2019.

5) UN Report: Over 820 million people suffering from hunger

•A UN report has said, more than 821 million people suffered from hunger worldwide last year. It is the third year in a row that the number has risen.

•The report named, ‘The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World’, produced by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and other UN agencies, including WHO, was released.

•The report is part of tracking progress towards Sustainable Development Goal to Zero Hunger, which aims to end hunger, promote food security and end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.

6) ‘Nagarkirtan’ wins big at SAARC film fest
•Director Kaushik Ganguly’s Bengali film ‘Nagarkirtan’, has won 4 awards in SAARC film festival. The movie was honoured with ‘Best Feature Film’, ‘Best Director’, ‘Best Actor’ and ‘Best Original Score’ awards.

•Two other Indian films have won awards at the fest,‘Na Bole Wo Haram’, a 20-minutefilm by debutant director Nitish Patankar, bagged the ‘Best Short Film’ award, while ‘Walking With the Wind’ by Praveen Morchhale received the Special Jury award for direction and story.

7) RBI fines Union Bank, SBI for flouting norms
•The Reserve Bank of India has penalised State Bank of India and Union Bank of India for violating certain regulatory guidelines.

•SBI was fined Rs 7 crore for non-compliance on Income Recognition and Asset Classification norms, code of conduct for opening and operating current accounts and reporting of data on Central Repository of Information on Large Credits, and fraud risk management and classification and reporting of frauds.

•The central bank also imposed a Rs 10 lakh fine on Union Bank of India for non compliance with the directions on the cyber security framework in banks.

8) India will host ISSF World Cup 2020
•International Shooting Sport Federation approved India’s application to host the ISSF World Cup stages. World Cup will be held in New Delhi from March 15 to 26 ,2020. The last edition of ISSF World Cup was held in Munich, Germany.

9) Sharath Kamal voted IOC Sportsperson of the Year
•Sharath Kamal was voted the Sportsperson of the Year in the annual Indian Oil Sports Conclave. The other nominees were cricketer Cheteshwar Pujara, Grandmaster B Adhiban, hockey player Simranjeet Singh and table tennis player Manika Batra.

•Sharath Kamal is a professional table tennis player from Tamil Nadu, India.

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Monthly Prestorming - June 2019 PDF

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Monthly Prestorming - June 2019 PDF

Click Here to download Monthly Prestorming - June 2019 PDF
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Summary of Economic Survey 2018-19 PDF BY FORUMIAS

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Summary of Economic Survey 2018-19 PDF BY FORUMIAS

Hello Friends,

Find below the summary of Economic Survey 2018-19
Part 1 - Click Here
Part 2 - Click Here

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Speedy Railway Book 1992-2018 Download PDF

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Click here to Download Speedy Railway Book 1992-2018 PDF [Hindi]

Sharing Credits : Speedy

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International Relation Updated Notes Download (Shubhra Ranjan IAS)

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02. Climate change PARIS Agreement

03. Europe – France Germany UK Commonwealth Nordics GDPR India-EU BTIA BREXIT EU challenges NATO

04. India – Latin America relations

05. India Afgaistan Relations

06. India Africa Relations

07. India Bangladesh Relations

08. India Bhutan Relations

09. India Iran Relations

10. India Japan Relations

11.  India Russia Relations

12.  India US Relations

13.  India-Maldives relations

14. India-Nepal Relations 

15. India-Sri Lanka relations

16. Indo-Pacific and Quad

17. Israel and Palestine

18. Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 

19. NUCLEAR Doctrine, India and non-proliferation export control regimes, NPT (50 years of NPT) and CTBT, UN TPNW 2017, 20 Years of Pokhran, 10 Years of Indo-US Nuclear Deal 

20.  SAARC 

21. Vision of a new World Order 

22. World Trade Organisation (WTO)

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The HINDU Notes – 16th July 2019

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📰 A test of law and justice

The challenges made to the 103rd constitutional amendment present a more difficult judicial examination than usual

•Constitutional challenges are often described as hard cases. This is, however, seldom true. Invariably, disputes possess a simple solution. We can debate over what theories of interpretation to apply and over whether the text of a clause needs to be read literally or in light of its historical background, but in most cases, the Supreme Court’s own precedent and commonly accepted legal theories provide an easy enough guide to finding a principled answer. The challenges made to the 103rd constitutional amendment, though, which a two-judge bench of the Supreme Court is slated to hear this month, present a rather more difficult test.

•Here, the issues involved concern questions both over whether the amendment infringes the extant idea of equality, and over whether that idea is so intrinsic to the Constitution, that departing from it will somehow breach the document’s basic structure. The court’s answers to these questions will operate not merely within the realm of the law but will also likely have a deep political bearing — for at stake here is the very nature of justice that India’s democracy embodies.

•The law, which was introduced in January this year, amends Articles 15 and 16 of the Constitution, and grants to government the power to provide for reservation in appointments to posts under the state and in admissions to educational institutions to “economically weaker sections of citizens [EWS]”. At first blush, this reservation, which can extend up to 10% of the total seats available, may not appear to impinge on the existing constitutional arrangement. But what it does mandate is a quota that will apply only to citizens other than the classes that are already eligible for reservation. Consequently, persons belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and persons who are not part of the creamy layer of the Other Backward Classes will not be eligible to the seats available under the quota.

•According to the petitioners in the Supreme Court, the central hypothesis of the amendment, where reservation is predicated on individual economic status, violates the Constitution’s basic structure. In their belief, the law, by providing for affirmative action unmindful of the structural inequalities inherent in India’s society, overthrows the prevailing rationale for reservations. In doing so, they argue, the amendment destroys the Constitution’s idea of equal opportunity. The Union of India argues that while the Constitution demands equality, it does not confine Parliament to any singular vision. According to it, the power to amend the Constitution must necessarily include a power to decide how to guarantee equal status to all persons.

Meaning and purpose

•In some senses, as sociologist Gail Omvedt wrote in these pages (“The purpose of reservation – I”, March 24, 2000), “the whole history of the struggle for reservation has also been a debate about its very meaning and purpose”. When reservations were first introduced by some of the princely states the policy was seen largely as an alleviative measure. For instance, in the princely State of Mysore, where privileged castes had cornered virtually every post available under the government, a system of reservations was introduced denominating communities as “Backward Classes”, and providing for them a larger share in the administration. By the time the Constitution was being drafted as a reading of the Constituent Assembly’s debates shows us, the rationale for reservations had broadened. The Constitution’s framers saw the measure as a promise against prejudice, as a tool to assimilate deprived groups into public life, and as a means of reparation, to compensate persons belonging to those groups for the reprehensible acts of discrimination wrought on them through history. Marc Galanter has called this a compensatory discrimination principle.

•Yet, despite the expanded justification, the basic foundational logic for reservations was still predicated on a demand for a fairer and more representative share in political administration. This is demonstrated by R.M. Nalavade’s comment in the Constituent Assembly. “Our experience in the provinces, though there are provisions for reservation in the services, is bitter,” he said. “Even though the depressed classes are educated and qualified, they are not given chances of employment under the Provincial Governments. Now that we have provided for this in the Constitution itself, there is no fear for the Scheduled castes. According to this clause we can be adequately represented in the provincial as well as in the Central services.”

•By providing for a more proportionate distribution of the share in administration, the programme of reservations, it was believed, would end at least some of caste-based domination of jobs, particularly of employment in the public sector — a domination that was built over thousands of years, where Dalits and Adivasis were denied access to equal status. As Ms. Omvedt has pointed out, the strategy behind reservations could, therefore, never have involved an attack on pure economic backwardness. The idea was always to disavow caste-monopoly in the public sector.

Theory of justice

•Even when the Constitution’s first amendment was introduced in 1951, to allow the state to make special provisions beyond reservations in public employment for “the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens, or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes”, the rationale, as the lawyer Malavika Prasad has argued, remained constant. Attempts made at the time to categorise individuals on the basis of economic status were expressly rejected. Behind this thinking was a distinctive theory of justice: that by according a greater share in public life to historically disadvantaged groups the relative position of those groups would stand enhanced. No doubt such a policy would not, in and of itself, help eliminate the various inequalities produced by the caste system, but it was believed it would represent a resolute effort to eliminate at least some of the caste-based domination prevailing in society.

•Indeed, the policy and the idea of justice that undergirds it have been seen as so indispensable to the Constitution’s aims and purposes that the Supreme Court in State of Kerala v. N.M. Thomas (1975) held that reservations based on social and educational backwardness, far from being an exception ought to be seen as an intrinsic facet of the idea of equality.

Unseating equality

•It is in departing from this logic that the 103rd amendment unseats the Constitution’s code of equality. Pure financial ability is a transient criterion; it doesn’t place people into a definite group requiring special privileges. If anything, allowing for reservation on such a principle only further fortifies the ability of powerful castes to retain their positions of authority, by creating an even greater monopolisation of their share in administration. If such an end is indeed the vision, it’s difficult to see how the elementary conception of equality guaranteed by the Constitution can continue to survive.

•Now, no doubt the Supreme Court may, on the face of things, consider Parliament as possessing the power to altogether dismantle the Constitution’s existing idea of equality without simultaneously demolishing the document’s basic structure. But, if nothing else, when the court hears the challenges made to the 103rd amendment, it must see the petitioners’ arguments as representing a credibly defensible view. The least the court ought to do, therefore, is to refer the case to a constitution bench, given that Article 145(3) mandates such an enquiry on any issue involving a substantial question of law concerning the Constitution’s interpretation, and, in the meantime, stay the operation of the amendment until such a bench hears the case fully. Should the court fail to do so the government will surely one day present to it a cruel fait accompli.

📰 Supreme Court admits petition to decriminalise abortion

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Study Business before Venturing Into It

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To become a great entrepreneur, you don't necessarily need tons of money or years of experience. Anyone can soar to great heights in the world of business with the right attitude, knowledge, and plan. Seeing a venture from inception to fruition is the joy of every business person.
However, every business has its challenges, and you need the right tools to be able to overcome them. To build a real business, one that will stand the test of time, you will need to study, do your research, and have a solid plan.
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