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Monday, October 03, 2022



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Sunday, October 02, 2022

VISION IAS Art & Culture Class Notes 2023 in Hindi PDF


VISION IAS Art & Culture Class Notes 2023 in Hindi PDF

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VISION IAS World History Class Notes 2023 in Hindi PDF


VISION IAS World History Class Notes 2023 in Hindi PDF

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VISION IAS Art & Culture Class Notes 2023 in English PDF


VISION IAS Art & Culture Class Notes 2023 in English PDF

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Saturday, October 01, 2022

The HINDU Notes – 01st October 2022



๐Ÿ“ฐ Letting go of a chance to democratise telecom services

•The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) — published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 — aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India’s socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, “Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India”, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century.

A repackaging

•Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

•The Telecom Bill will usher in a wave of stricter regulations and centralised power by introducing licences for telecommunication services. The definition for such services has been significantly expanded under Clause 2(21) of the Telecom Bill to include online communication service providers such as WhatsApp, Apple Watch, Jitsi, etc. Such a move reflects historical baggage and flows from a long-standing argument and demand made by large telecom companies (‘telcos’) to bring online communication services under regulation for a ‘level-playing field’.

Threat to innovation, privacy protection

•The argument that over-the-top (OTT) services are a “substitute” of the services provided by telcos, often termed as the “same service, same rules” argument, is flawed as the two have inherently different functionalities. For instance, while telecom operators act as the gatekeepers to the underlying broadband infrastructure, OTT services can only be accessed through telco-controlled infrastructure. Introduction of OTT communication services under the ambit of telecommunication services is illustrative of a reductionist approach, wherein the diverse services provided by such OTT service providers such as social networking and video calling are aggregated, stripping it of its richness. Such a move may lead to uncertainty in treatment, build ad hocism, and pose overbearing compliance and legal costs on service providers, having deleterious effects on innovation.

•On September 14, 2020, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) issued recommendations on OTT regulation, which were broadly supportive of user choice and the demands raised mainly by digital rights organisations against placing regulatory burden on Internet communication services. However, the Department of Telecommunication (DoT) did not recognise these positive recommendations and also further diluted TRAI’s responsibility of providing recommendations to the central government prior to issuing licences under Clause 46. Moreover, the central government may, in exercising its exclusive privilege to issue a licence, require such online service providers to store data locally, in India. Such a data localisation requirement confers excessive discretion to the Government, and adversely affects the privacy of individuals.

•Further, the expansion of the definition of telecommunication services to include OTT communication services, coupled with the requirements for interception under Clause 24(2)(a) may signal the death knell for end-to-end encryption (E2EE) in India. While previously Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 authorised interception of messages transmitted through telegraphs, this has not halted attempts, regardless of success, by the executive to expand the provision to include OTT communication services such as Whatsapp and Signal.

•Indeed, there is ongoing litigation before the Supreme Court of India in which the traceability requirement of the Information Technology Rules, 2021 is under challenge. However, the Telecom Bill formalises these attempts of the executive to bypass the privacy protecting practice of E2EE and requires OTT communication service providers such as Whatsapp and Signal to intercept or disclose any message or class of messages to the authorised officer. These attempts are in stark contrast with the recommendations and learnings evolved in the last decade by the Supreme Court in its right to privacy decision (2017) and the Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee Report on data protection (2018). Both of these signalled the urgent need for reform of the existing surveillance framework in the country due to its lack of independent oversight and propensity for misuse.

Suspension of net services

•Replicating this failure to learn from knowledge accumulated post-Independence, Clause 24(2)(b) of the Telecom Bill lays down, for the first time, a specific power for suspension of Internet services (Internet shutdowns). In addition to the impact Internet shutdowns have on the fundamental right to free speech of citizens, the high economic costs of such shutdowns have also been consistently raised as a criticism. Here, the Telecom Bill, which recognises socio-economic growth as one of its stated objectives, fails to take sufficient steps to deliver on its promise. The clause does not solve any of the issues that exist with the current framework for Internet shutdowns in India, specifically the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017. Learnings and recommendations from the Supreme Court’s decision in 2020 in Anuradha Bhasin vs Union Of India and the 2021 report of the Standing Committee on Information Technology find no place in the Telecom Bill.

•The opportunity for significant legislative reform has been squandered not just for surveillance and Internet shutdowns but also for net neutrality. India has in the past adopted an indigenous and progressive approach towards net neutrality. However, we are today missing an opportunity to set global standards by not introducing principles of net neutrality in the Telecom Bill. DoT is inviting comments from the public till October 20, 2022. This is a bill that impacts everyday Internet users, their choices and safety. Thus, it must be engaged with widely.

๐Ÿ“ฐ As India ages, keeping an eye on the elderly

•The United Nations marks today as International Day for Older Persons (October 1), as part of the organisation’s efforts to draw attention to healthy ageing. Recently, a report by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), “World Population Prospects 2022”, has projected big shifts in global demographic patterns in the coming decades.

•As global birth rates stabilise and shrink, 16% of the world population by 2050 is expected to be made up of people over 65 years. India will be home to the largest population in the world which would include a large elderly sub-population. This demographic change will have a profound impact on its health systems. In this, eye care service delivery is uniquely placed to be the first point-of-contact with the elderly and to also help with health surveillance and planning.

Changes to population structure

•The “World Population Prospects 2022” report estimates that by 2050, the global population will be 9.7 billion people. By then, those older than 65 years will be twice as many as children under five. That year is also projected to be a pivotal year for India’s population too. The report projects India’s population to be 1.7 billion by 2050, having overtaken China to be the world’s most populous country. Eight countries — India is among them — will account for more than half of the world’s increasing population by 2050.

•Previous United Nations reports have projected that the proportion of India’s elderly population will double to be nearly 20% of the total population by that year. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, or disabilities related to vision, hearing or mobility is higher among the elderly. The change in demographic structure will increase the pressure on public health systems that are not geared to deliver universal health care along with social security measures such as old-age and disability pensions.

Eye care and elderly health

•The Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in the Elderly Study (HOMES) by the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute has been producing a series of systematic reports on various aspects of health, quality of life, mental health, morbidity, and disability amongst the elderly living in homes-for-the-aged in Hyderabad, Telangana. Using eye care as a point of entry, the study has been measuring a variety of health and social metrics in over 1,000 participants (all aged over 60), spread across a range of socio-economic circumstances. Over 30% of the elderly in the study had distance vision loss and over 50% had near vision impairment (they needed reading glasses). Nearly half the participants had at least one disability and a third of them had multiple morbidities. About 70% of them were using at least one assistive device, spectacles being the most common. The study also explored the many links between vision impairment and an elderly person’s mental health and confidence. People with impaired vision had a greater fear, and risk, of falling (a major cause of disability and hospitalisation among the elderly). This reduced their movement and independence, leading to depression. Addressing their vision impairment improved lives.

•The HOMES data show us that the first step towards tackling basic issues of access and confidence in the elderly is to address vision loss. Eye examinations are also good opportunities to assess and recognise other systemic issues in the elderly. The way forward can then be a package of interventions, including assistive devices for sight, hearing, and mobility, or referrals to psychiatric support for depression or other mental health issues. In this way, eye care can catalyse a model of elderly care that will help us recalibrate our approach to this changing world.

•There is more. Most eye conditions typically affect those who are very young or the elderly — age groups that are dependent on others for health access. Therefore, the Indian eye care model has always prioritised primary care ‘vision’ centres, bringing care closer to those in need. Chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension lead to irreversible vision loss and so, the sector has been building referral networks connecting with other health specialities.

A perspective

•Eye care has also been at the cutting edge of imaging technologies and tele-health, creating portable devices and apps that remove access issues for those who cannot travel far. Crucially, eye health in India has many cross-subsidy models to help alleviate the financial burden on individuals.

•This set of experiences and expertise has put eye care in a unique position to help us navigate the transition to an ageing society. The future of elderly care needs to be long term, comprehensive, and integrated, and must be oriented towards primary care to be accessible. It must account for all kinds of socio-economic realities, working to ensure that no elderly person is denied care irrespective of their financial status. A comprehensive eye examination can be the first step towards enabling such a healthy and happy future for our elderly citizens.

๐Ÿ“ฐ No discrimination

•The Supreme Court’s ruling holding that single and unmarried women have the same right to a medically safe abortion as married women is a necessary intervention to set right an anomaly between the letter of the law and its practice. Anchored on the equality clause in the Constitution, as well as on the right to dignity, privacy and bodily autonomy of women, the Court has ruled that there is no rationale for excluding single or unmarried women from the categories of women who could seek abortion care after the completion of 20 weeks of pregnancy, but before 24 weeks. The Delhi High Court had declined to allow the termination of the pregnancy of a 25-year-old woman who was in a consensual relationship, but did not want to carry the pregnancy to term after her partner declined to marry her. The reason cited was that being unmarried, and the pregnancy having occurred consensually, she was not eligible for the benefit of the amendment under the rules. The High Court took a technical view, as Rule 3B, which listed the women eligible for termination of pregnancy — such as rape survivors, minors, those with physical disabilities and mental illness — did not explicitly include single women who had become pregnant in a consensual relationship.

•However, the Court has given a purposive meaning to the rules. “Change in marital status” as one of the reasons for which abortion during the extended upper limit of 24 weeks is permissible. As the rationale here is a possible change in the woman’s material circumstances, the Court has ruled that even abandonment by the partner could constitute a change in circumstances that could impact an earlier decision to carry on with the pregnancy. The legislature has allowed abortions up to the 24th week of pregnancy, if two registered medical practitioners are of the opinion that continuing the pregnancy would involve a risk to the woman’s life or cause grave injury to her health. Here too, the Court has taken a purposive view, laying down that an unwanted pregnancy affects a woman’s physical and mental health, rendering it quite important that she alone should decide on whether to undergo an abortion. On a question that did not directly arise in this case, the Court has said rape survivors who may legally seek an abortion in the extended period will also include survivors of marital rape. This judicial view may prevent questions being raised as to whether pregnancy caused by marital rape, which is not a crime, could also be terminated under this rule. At a time when unsafe abortions remain a major cause of maternal mortality, it is a significant verdict that advances the cause of safe abortion services.

๐Ÿ“ฐ U.S. sanctions Indian petrochemical company for Iran oil purchases

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Friday, September 30, 2022

VISION IAS World History Class Notes 2023 in English PDF


VISION IAS World History Class Notes 2023 in English PDF

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Thursday, September 29, 2022

Daily Current Affairs, 29th September 2022



1)  World Heart Day 2022 Observed On September 29

•Every year on the 29th of September, people all around the world observe World Heart Day. The day is observed to raise awareness about the rising concerns of heart health, cardiovascular illnesses, the impact of overexercising on the heart and how heart care is of utmost importance.

World Heart Day 2022: Theme

•The theme for World Heart Day 2022 is ‘USE HEART FOR EVERY HEART’. With increasing global awareness about cardiovascular diseases and learning to manage the disease. In the theme ‘USE HEART FOR EVERY HEART’, “Use Heart” means to think differently, make the right decisions, act with courage and help others. Similarly, “For Every Heart” involves the use of “FOR” and shifts the focus from the actions themselves to the heir of such actions, allowing for wider application of the campaign while also making it more personal.

2)  International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste 2022

•On 29 September 2022, the International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste is observed globally. Reducing food loss and waste is of significant importance as it contributes to the realization of broader improvements to agri-food systems toward achieving food security, food safety, improving food quality and delivering on nutritional outcomes. Reducing food loss and waste also contributes significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as pressure on land and water resources.

International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste 2022: Theme

•The theme for International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste 2022 is “Stop Food Loss and waste, for the people, for the planet”. Reducing food losses and waste is essential in a world where the number of people affected by hunger has been slowly on the rise since 2014, and tons and tons of edible food are lost and/or wasted every day.

3)  Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurates 13th FICCI Global Skills Summit 2022

•Union Education and Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Minister, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurated and addressed the 13th FICCI Global Skills Summit 2022 on the theme of “Education to Employability – Making It Happen.” in New Delhi. The Summit would look through the NEP lens and focus on how India can become the “Skill Capital of the World,” using the UN Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) as an underlying theme.

4)  MoHUA launched Swachh Toycathon

•The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched Swachh Toycathon under the Swachh Amrit Mahotsav. The competition aims to explore solutions for use of waste in the creation or manufacturing of toys. Secretary, MoHUA, Manoj Joshi, launched the event on MyGov portal and released the toolkit.

5)  Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 Extended Further For 6 Months

•The Commerce Ministry announced the extension of the existing foreign trade policy by six months. The reason behind the development is currency volatility and global uncertainty. The ministry said, the geo-political situation is not suitable for long-term foreign trade policy. 

6)  Ministry of Home Affairs bans PFI and its associates for five years

•Ministry of Home Affairs bans PFI and its associates: The Popular Front of India (PFI) and its affiliates were banned by the Centre for a period of five years, days after law enforcement agents tried in a campaign to suppress the activities of the group. The Ministry of Home Affairs used the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act to enact the ban, claiming that the Popular Front of India (PFI) and its affiliates pose a “major threat to internal security of the country” and are connected to terrorist organisations like the ISIS. Before banning, Agencies raided the PFI offices and found unaccounted cash and other objectionable documents.

7)  New CDS of India: Lt General Anil Chauhan

•Lt General Anil Chauhan – New CDS of India: Lt. Gen. Anil Chauhan, a retired general, is appointed as the new Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) by the Center. The retired Lt. General will serve as Secretary to the Government of India’s Department of Military Affairs, according to a statement from the ministry of defence. The appointment was made a few months after the nation’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), General Bipin Rawat, perished in a helicopter accident in the Niligiris area of Tamil Nadu. Throughout his 40-year career, Lt. Gen. Anil Chauhan has successfully occupied a number of positions. It is crucial to learn more about his life’s path.

8)  Uttar Pradesh wins Ayushmann Utkrishta award 2022

•Ayushmann Utkrishta Award 2022 has been given to Uttar Pradesh for adding several healthcare facilities to the health facility register. With 28728 new healthcare facilities added to the National Health Facility Register, Uttar Pradesh is the best performing state in the nation. With over 2 crore ABHA Accounts, the state is also the second best State for creating Ayushmann Bharat health accounts (ABHA). These are the state’s initial few landmarks.

9)  Uttar Pradesh govt gives nod to Bundelkhand’s first tiger reserve

•The Uttar Pradesh cabinet has gave a green signal for the development of the first tiger reserve in the Bundelkhand region. The tiger reserve will span across 52,989.863 hectares of land including 29,958.863 hectares of buffer area and 23,031.00 hectares of the core area which was already notified as Ranipur wildlife sanctuary in the Chitrakoot district of the state.

•The Ranipur Tiger Reserve area covered by northern tropical dry deciduous forests is home to tiger, leopard, bear, spotted deer, sambhar, chinkara, reptiles and other mammals. The establishment of Ranipur Tiger Reserve will prove to be a turning point for the conservation of wildlife in Bundelkhand along with the opening of the eco-tourism potential of the area creating immense employment opportunities benefiting the local population.

10)  Saudi Arabia Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman appointed as prime minister

•Saudi Arabia’s powerful Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has been appointed as the prime minister by a royal decree. The crown prince, who is heir to the throne held by King Salman, already wields wide powers and is seen as the kingdom’s day-to-day leader. The royal decree appointing him as prime minister was carried by the Saudi Press Agency.

•The reshuffle kept another son, Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman, as energy minister, the king said in the royal decree. The crown prince, known as MbS, is promoted from defence minister and has been the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, the world’s biggest oil exporter and a major U.S. ally in the Middle East.

11)  ADB to Devote $14 billion to Help Ease Food Crisis in Asia-Pacific

•The Asian Development Bank said, it will devote at least $14 billion through 2025 to help ease a worsening food crisis in Asia-Pacific. The development lender said it plans a comprehensive program of support to help the 1.1 billion people in the region who lack healthy diets due to poverty and soaring food prices. The Manila, Philippines-based ADB made the announcement during its annual meeting.

12)  Vijay Jasuja named as Independent Director of Stashfin

•Leading Fintech platform Stashfin has appointed BFSI (Banking, Financial Services and Insurance) expert and former MD and CEO of SBI Cards, Vijay Jasuja as Non-Executive Independent Director. He also served as a Director at PNB Cards. Jasuja, an industry veteran, has more than 40 years of BFSI experience in leadership positions across Indian and overseas markets, has been the MD and CEO of SBI Cards, and director, of PNB Cards. He has held multiple leadership positions at SBI including General Manager, Hyderabad; General Manager (IBG), Mumbai; Country Head and CEO, Maldives and Regional Head, Sub-Saharan Africa.

13)  Senior Advocate R Venkataramani named as new Attorney General of India

•Senior advocate R Venkataramani has been appointed as the new Attorney General of India. The President has appointed Mr Venkataramani as the new Attorney General for a period of three years from the 1st of October. The notification regarding Mr Venkataramani’s appointment as the Attorney General was issued today by the Department of Legal Affairs, Union Ministry of Law and Justice. Mr Venkataramani will replace current Attorney General KK Venugopal whose term ends on September 30, 2022. Mr Venugopal is currently on his third extension.

14)  Hitachi Astemo planted its first solar power plant in India

•Hitachi Astemo installed its India’s first ground-mounted solar power plant of 3 megawatts (MW) at its Jalgaon manufacturing plant. The 3 megawatts (MW) solar power plant will be built in an area of 43301 sqm. The ground-mounted solar power plant will consist of 7128 ground-mounted solar panels and 10 inverters. Hitachi Astemo is known for the development, manufacture, sale, and service of automotive and transportation components. This solar power plant will embark on its new journey in the field of sustainable energy in India.

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Vision IAS Weekly Focus Magazine 2022 Geo-spatial data and National Security PDF


Vision IAS Weekly Focus Magazine 2022 Geo-spatial data and National Security PDF

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