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Wednesday, June 09, 2021

The HINDU Notes – 09th June 2021

16:32

 


๐Ÿ“ฐ Supreme Court orders tough action against illegal calls for adoption of COVID-19-orphaned children

Court directive follows NCPCR, on Monday, raising the alarm on a spate of complaints on such illegal adoption

•The Supreme Court has directed the States and Union Territories (UTs) to take stringent action against private individuals and NGOs who invite people to illegally adopt children orphaned by the COVID-19 pandemic.

•A Bench of Justices L. Nageswara Rao and Aniruddha Bose, in an 18-page order published on Tuesday, ordered the government to step in and prevent private entities from revealing the identities of COVID-19 affected children, usually on social media, and inviting people to adopt them.

•“The State Governments/Union Territories are directed to prevent any NGO from collecting funds in the names of the affected children by disclosing their identity and inviting interested persons to adopt them. No adoption of affected children should be permitted contrary to the provisions of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015,” the court ordered.

‘CARA involvement must’

•It was illegal to invite strangers to adopt children, already traumatised by their personal losses, without the involvement of the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA), a statutory body under the Women and Child Development Ministry, it said.

•“Invitation to persons for adoption of orphans is contrary to law as no adoption of a child can be permitted without the involvement of CARA. Stringent action shall be taken by the State Governments/Union Territories against agencies/individuals who are responsible for indulging in this illegal activity,” it observed.

•The order came after the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), on Monday, raised the alarm on a spate of complaints about illegal adoption of COVID-19 orphans through private individual and organisations. The Commission said certain private individuals and organisations have been actively collecting data on these children while claiming that they wanted to assist families and children in adoption.

•“Social media posts are circulating that children are up for adoption. This is plainly illegal and violates the Juvenile Justice Act,” advocate Shobha Gupta, for intervenor ‘We the Women of India’, made an impassioned plea.

•NCPCR statistics show that 3,621 children were orphaned, 26,176 children lost either parent and 274 abandoned between April 1, 2021 to June 5, 2021. The second wave of the pandemic was at its worst form during this period, leaving a trail of death across the country.

•The apex court is hearing a suo motu case on the plight of children impacted by the pandemic.

Child trafficking

•Advocate Gaurav Agrawal, amicus curiae, said cases of child trafficking have been going up. The government should intervene to care and protect children orphaned, abandoned or whose families have lost their earning members.

•The court said lack of knowledge about the rights of children under the Juvenile Justice Act had led to many falling victim to efforts at illegal adoption, etc. It court directed the Centre, States and the Union Territories to give wide publicity to the provisions of the 2015 Act at regular intervals so as to make the general public, children and their parents or guardians aware of such provisions. “It is true that the majority of the populace are not aware of their rights and entitlement to several benefits announced by the governments,” it noted.

•The court ordered the States/ Union Territories to continue with their efforts to identify children in need of care and protection after March 2020. and upload their details on the NCPCR database in order to provide them welfare schemes.

•The court said these children should be tracked down through the District Child Protection Officers (DCPOs), childline, health officials, panchayati raj institutions, police authorities, NGOs, etc. The DCPOs should contact a child as soon as it heard about the death of the parents and provide for its basic needs. If the guardian of the child was not found suitable, the DCPO should produce the child before the local Child Welfare Committee (CWC).

•“DPCO shall take the assistance of government servants at the gram panchayat level to monitor the welfare of the disconsolate children devastated by the catastrophe of losing their parent/parents,” the court directed.

๐Ÿ“ฐ India expected to grow at 8.3%, says World Bank

The growth rate forecasted for India for 2021-22, the World Bank is an upward revision from its January forecast of 5.4%.

•India’s economy is expected to grow at 8.3% for Fiscal Year 2021-22 as per the World Bank’s latest projections. This rate, however, masked the damage caused by the “enormous” second wave of COVID-19, the Bank said in its June 2021 Global Economic Prospects released on Tuesday. The world economy is expected to expand 5.6% , the fastest post-recession growth rate in eighty years, but global output will still be 2% below pre-pandemic projections by year-end.

•The growth rate forecasted for India for 2021-22, the World Bank is an upward revision from its January forecast of 5.4%. However this revision “masks significant expected economic damage from an enormous second COVID-19 wave and localized mobility restrictions since March 2021,” the report says, adding that activity will follow the same but less pronounced collapse and recovery seen in last year’s COVID wave.

•“Activity will benefit from policy support, including higher spending on infrastructure, rural development, and health, and a stronger-than[1]expected recovery in services and manufacturing,” the report says.

•For FY 2022-23 growth is expected to slow to 7.5% as a result of the pandemic’s lingering effects on the balance sheets of households, companies and banks and possibly low levels of consumer confidence and heightened uncertainty around job and incomes.

•For India the massive COVID-19 wave had undermined the sharper than expected rebound in activity for the second half of FY 2020-21 – particularly in services, according to the Bank. Since March, foot traffic around retail spaces has slowed to below a third of what it was in pre-pandemic times.

•For the world as a whole, losses to per capita income will not be reversed by 2022 for some two-thirds of emerging market and developing economies, the Bank said. Low income countries that have lagged in vaccinations have witnessed a reversal in poverty reduction, with the pandemic exacerbating insecurity and other long-standing challenges.

•“While there are welcome signs of global recovery, the pandemic continues to inflict poverty and inequality on people in developing countries around the world,” World Bank Group President David Malpass said in a press statement.

•“Globally coordinated efforts are essential to accelerate vaccine distribution and debt relief, particularly for low-income countries. As the health crisis eases, policymakers will need to address the pandemic’s lasting effects and take steps to spur green, resilient, and inclusive growth while safeguarding macroeconomic stability,” he said.

๐Ÿ“ฐ A necessary reversion: On going back to centralised procurement of vaccines

The changes in vaccine policy should help improve India’s response to the pandemic

•The Centre has announced a much-needed course correction in India’s vaccination policy with Prime Minister Narendra Modi taking the podium to announce that the month-old decision to leave States to procure vaccines on their own for their 18-44 population would be ending in two weeks. States were allowed to procure 25% of the vaccines manufactured and the Centre 50%, a policy that the Supreme Court termed “irrational and arbitrary”. The Court’s comments have had a salutary effect. From June 21, the Centre will be procuring 75% and States will no longer have to pay vaccine companies for the same. Vaccines will continue to be free for all those who choose to get their shot at government centres. The 25% vaccines that were allotted to private hospitals will continue too, though the service charges that they charge will be capped at ₹150. This ceiling price on vaccines in hospitals will bring predictability and be hugely beneficial to citizens. The Centre, which controlled all supply of vaccines and had negotiated prices and orders with Bharat Biotech and the Serum Institute saw itself desperately short of supply right in the middle of India’s deadly second wave. The hospital emergencies worsened the Centre’s panic and so it chose a path that no country had undertaken, of devolving the responsibility of buying vaccines to States. Health has traditionally been within the purview of States, and it stands to reason that they would invariably have to deal with the challenges that vaccination throws up. This includes vaccine hesitancy, the problem of transportation, the availability of trained personnel and the existing capacity at health-care sites. Faced with the intensity of the second wave, States demanded more vaccines and autonomy in deciding how to administer them. What resulted were frequent public spats, with the Centre blaming States for inefficiently using available stocks and yet demanding more.

•Though there are substantial numbers of senior citizens yet to be vaccinated, particularly with a second dose, it is clear that the foreseeable demand will be in the sub-45 category. The Government appears more confident of getting a steady stream of supply from Bharat Biotech and the Serum Institute and, in a bold move, has ordered 30 crore doses of an untested vaccine from the Hyderabad-based Biological E. Assuming that a third wave is not in the vicinity, these changes in total could be the beginning of a smoother, more efficient vaccine roll-out. Mr. Modi’s announcement was preceded by a truculent defence of himself and his government and passing on blame to a variety of actors, including governments before 2014, for India’s very real shortcomings on vaccination. However, the path to positive change is often meandering, and surviving the pandemic and being wiser from mistakes must be the spirit in which these policy changes are adopted.

๐Ÿ“ฐ Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight

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The HINDU Notes – 08th June 2021

16:13

 


๐Ÿ“ฐ Draft Rules for live-streaming, recording of court proceedings out

Court invites suggestions from stakeholders.

•Draft Rules released by the Supreme Court e-Committee on Monday for live-streaming and recording court proceedings propose a 10-minute delay in transmission and exclusion of communally sensitive cases and matters that involve sexual offences and gender violence against women.

•The Rules are part of the National Policy and Action Plan for implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the judiciary.

•Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana recently said the process to make live stream a reality was actively under consideration.

•Now, the Supreme Court has invited inputs and feedback on the ‘Draft Model Rules for Live-Streaming and Recording of Court Proceedings’. The Rules would cover live-streaming and recording of proceedings in High Courts, lower courts and tribunals.

Letter to CJs

•Justice D.Y. Chandrachud, who heads the Supreme Court e-Committee, had written to the Chief Justices of the High Courts for their feedback on the draft Rules.

•A sub-committee consisting of judges of the Bombay, Delhi, Madras and Karnataka High Courts was constituted to frame the model draft Rules.

•In his letter, Justice Chandrachud said the right of access to justice, guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution, “encompasses the right to access live court proceedings”.

•The Rules intend to balance between access to information and concerns of privacy and confidentiality.

•Matrimonial matters, cases under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO) and under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act would also be exempted from livestream. The Bench can exempt, for reasons recorded in writing, any case it considers antithetical to the administration of justice.

•Cameras would be positioned to cover five angles; the Bench, lawyers on both sides, accused and witnesses.

•A remote control device would be provided to the presiding judge on the Bench to pause or stop the livestream at any time.

•“The final decision as to whether or not to allow the live-streaming of the proceedings or any portion thereof will be of the Bench, however, the decision of the Bench will be guided by the principle of an open and transparent judicial process,” the Rules said.

No personal information

•Personal information such as date of birth of parties, home address, identity card number, bank account information, and the personal information of related parties, such as close relatives, witnesses and other participants, will be deleted or muted during live-streaming.

•The content of the recording would be vetted and posted, usually within three days of the conclusion of the proceedings. The content would be posted on the court website or made available on digital platforms authorised by the court.

•“No person/entity (including print and electronic media, and social media platforms) other than an authorised person/entity shall record, share and/or disseminate live-streamed proceedings or archival data,” the Rules proposed.

๐Ÿ“ฐ Supreme Court urged to stop illegal adoption of children orphaned by COVID-19

Justice Nageswara Rao said the court would pass the necessary orders on the issue of illegal adoption of children orphaned by COVID-19

•The Supreme Court on June 7 agreed to intervene after the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) sounded the alarm on a spate of complaints about illegal adoption of children orphaned by COVID-19 through private individual and organisations.

•The NCPCR informed a Bench led by Justices L. Nageswara Rao and Aniruddha Bose that it has received many complaints in May that private individuals and organisations have been actively collecting data on these children while claiming that they want to assist families and children in adoption.

•“Social media posts are circulating thar children are up for adoption. This is plainly illegal and violates the Juvenile Justice Act,” advocate Shobha Gupta, for an intervenor, made an impassioned plea.

•“The adoption of orphaned/abandoned/surrendered children is lawful only after the adoption procedure as given under the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 is followed and the final adoption order is passed by the prescribed authority,” Additional Solicitor General K.M. Nataraj, for NCPCR, submitted.

•The NCPCR statistics shows that 3,621 children were orphaned, 26,176 children lost either parent and 274 children were abandoned between April 1, 2021 to June 5, 2021. The second wave of the pandemic was at its worst form during this period, leaving a trail of death across the country.

•Justice Rao said the court would pass the necessary orders on the issue of illegal adoptions.

•The national child rights body said information about these children, including their personal details, are being leaked from within government sources to private bodies, which circulate them.

•“The Commission is receiving intimation regarding disclosure of children’s identity/ information by government authorities to private NGOs and organizations. Care must be taken by the authorities to ensure that their action is not in violation of Section 74 of the Juvenile Justice Act,” the NCPCR affidavit said.

•The provision prohibits the disclosure of identity of children with regard to the name, school, age, address or any information which would reveal the essential details of the child.

•The NCPCR urged the court to direct the States and Union Territories to not place any confidential information about children in the public domain which would make them susceptible to trafficking,

•“The Commission is also concerned to note that several NGOs are seeking monetary support in the name of children impacted by COVID. However, there is no disclosure to authorities regarding actual beneficiaries, as mandated under the JJ Act, 2015,” the NCPCR said.

•The Commission asked the court to direct the States and UTs to create State Juvenile Justice Funds to enable the credit of donations/ contributions/ subscriptions directly in the notified account.

๐Ÿ“ฐ Fivefold increase in farm protests since 2017: CSE report

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THE HINDU NEWSPAPER IMPORTANT ARTICLES 09.06.2021

07:44
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Tuesday, June 08, 2021

THE HINDU NEWSPAPER IMPORTANT ARTICLES 08.06.2021

07:31
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Monday, June 07, 2021

G7 Global Corporate Tax Deal

20:43

 Why in news?

  • The Group of Seven (G7) countries have backed the proposal to impose a common global corporate tax.
  • It is aimed at preventing multinational businesses from evading taxes and also squeezing the havens which attract tax evaders due to the low-rate jurisdictions.

What are the decisions taken?

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Recognising Sex Work as Work

20:43

 What is the issue?

  • As many sections of the society, the pandemic has hit hard the adults who earn by providing sexual services.
  • It is time to consider the demand of granting basic labour rights to sex workers.

Why do sex workers face double burden?

  • Sex work is not recognised as “legitimate work.”
  • They do not become eligible to benefit from the government’s relief programmes.
  • Sex workers in India have been asking for decriminalisation of sex work and a guaranteed set of labour rights.
  • COVID-19's impact has provided yet another reason to consider this long-pending demand.

What are the current legal provisions?

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Daily Current Affairs, 07th June 2021

20:38

 


1)  UN Russian Language Day: 06 June

•The UN Russian Language Day is observed annually on 06 June. It is one of the six official languages used by the United Nations throughout the Organization. The day was established by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2010.


•6 June is chosen as UN Russian Language Day as it coincides with the birthday of Aleksandr Pushkin, a Russian poet who is considered the father of the modern Russian language. Each of the six official languages has been assigned a day of celebration by the UN’s Department of Public Information in 2010 to celebrate multilingualism and cultural diversity as well as to promote equal use of all six official languages throughout the Organization.


2)  World Pest Day: 06 June

•Every year, World Pest Day (also sometimes called World Pest Awareness Day) is observed on 06 June. The main purpose of the day is to increase public, government, and media awareness of the important role pest management organization plays in protecting public health, project the professional image of the pest management industry, promote the use of professional pest management in a scientific and socially responsible way and call attention to the big threats caused by small pests.


•The first World Pest Day was marked in 2017. World Pest Day was initiated by the Chinese Pest Control Association, and co-sponsored by the Federation of Asian and Oceania Pest Managers’ Association (FAOPMA), the National Pest Management Association (NPMA), and the Confederation of European Pest Management Associations (CEPA).


3)  World Food Safety Day: 7th June

•World Food Safety Day is observed on 7th June globally. The aim of the day is to raise awareness about different foodborne risks and the measures of how to prevent it. The campaigns will also spread awareness that how food safety is very much important and related to different other important factors of life such as human health, economic growth, and many others. Also, the day will surely ensure in building up a connection between food safety and other elements such as agriculture, sustainable development, and market access.


•This year’s theme is “Safe food today for a healthy tomorrow”. It discusses the fact that the production and consumption of safe food have immediate and long-term benefits. Recognizing the systemic connections between the health of people, animals, plants, the environment and the economy will help us meet the needs of the future.


4)  PM Modi Launches Three E-100 Ethanol Dispensing Stations in Pune

•Prime Minister Narendra Modi virtually addressed the World Environment Day event, which was jointly organised by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas and the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. During the event, PM Modi also released the “Report of the Expert Committee on Road Map for ethanol blending in India 2020-2025”. The theme of the report is ‘promotion of biofuels for a better environment’.


5)  India Launches Global Energy Initiative “Mission Innovation CleanTech Exchange”

•The Governments of 23 nations, including India, have collectively launched a bold new plan called Mission Innovation 2.0, to catalyze action and spearhead a decade of innovation for global investment in clean energy research, development and demonstrations. Mission Innovation 2.0 is the second phase of the global Mission Innovation initiative, launched alongside the Paris Agreement at the 2015 COP21 conference. The new initiative was launched at the Innovating to Net Zero Summit, hosted by Chile.


Purpose: To make clean energy affordable, attractive and accessible throughout this decade; To accelerate action towards the Paris Agreement; and Net-zero pathways.


Plan: Under this new MI 2.0, a series of new Missions will be undertaken, which will be supported by a new global Innovation Platform to strengthen confidence and awareness in emerging innovations and maximize the impact of national investments.


India’s Effort: As a part of this Platform, India has launched the Mission Innovation CleanTech Exchange, to create a network of incubators across member countries. The network will provide access to the expertise and market insights needed to support new technologies to access new markets globally.


6)  Kerala launches ‘Knowledge Economy Mission’

•Kerala government has launched ‘Knowledge Economy Mission’ to boost job prospects in the state by supporting knowledge workers. The initiative was announced in State Budget on June 4. It was being spearheaded by Kerala Development and Innovation Strategic Council (K-DISC) and they will submit a comprehensive project report before July 15.


7)  Ladakh LG RK Mathur Launches “YounTab Scheme”

•The Lt Governor of Ladakh, RK Mathur launched a scheme called ‘YounTab’, under which 12,300 tablets would be distributed among the students in the Union Territory. As part of the first phase of the YounTab Scheme, Mr Mathur distributed the tablets to the students of Classes 9 to 12 standards.


8)  RBI approves re-appointment of Vishwavir Ahuja as MD, RBL Bank

•The Reserve Bank of India has approved the appointment of Vishwavir Ahuja as the Managing Director and CEO of RBL Bank for a one-year period with effect from June 30, 2021. He has been the Managing Director & CEO of RBL Bank since June 30, 2010. Before RBL Bank, Ahuja was the Managing Director & CEO of Bank of America, India.


9)  Thomas Vijayan Wins Nature TTL Photographer of the Year 2021

•Kerala-based Thomas Vijayan, who is now settled in Canada, has won the 2021 Nature TTL Photography Awards for his photo of an Orangutan clinging to a tree. The photograph is titled ‘The World is Going Upside Down’.


•Vijayan was adjudged as the overall winner of the competition from over 8,000 entries for Nature TTL Photographer of the Year 2021, which carries a grand prize of 1,500 pounds (Rs.1.5 lakh). Nature TTL is the world’s leading online nature photography resource.


10)  CBSE to introduce coding, data science in curriculum

•The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has collaborated with Microsoft to introduce Coding as a new subject for students of Class 6-8 and Data Science as the new subject for Class 8-12 in the 2021-2022 academic session. Both these new skilling subjects are being launched in line with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.


•Coding and Data Science Curriculum are focused on building critical thinking, computational skills, problem-solving skills, creativity and hands-on exposure to new technologies. In keeping with the NEP 2020, the introduction of these courses aims to build next-generation skills in students. The new course curriculum on coding and data science that we have developed in partnership with Microsoft will equip students with future-ready learning skills. This is an important step to enable self-reliance in our students and equip them with skills like problem-solving, logical thinking, collaboration and design thinking that are critical for success.


11)  India slips two spots on 17th Sustainable Development Goals report

•India’s rank has slipped by two places from last year to 117 on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted as a part of the 2030 agenda by 193 United Nations member states in 2015. India ranks below four South Asian countries: Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.


•The State of India’s Environment Report 2021 revealed that India’s rank was 115 last year and dropped by two places primarily because of major challenges like ending hunger and achieving food security (SDG 2), achieving gender equality (SDG 5) and building resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and fostering innovation (SDG 9) remain in the country.


12)  GST collections at Rs 1.03 lakh crore for May

•The goods and service tax collections for May clocked Rs 1,02,709 crore, making it the eighth straight month of collections crossing the Rs 1 lakh crore mark. The collections have been 65% higher than the GST revenues in the same month, despite many states being under lockdown due to the Covid pandemic.


•The May GST collections were also a 27.6 per cent drop from a record sum of Rs 1.41 lakh crore in April, which was the highest monthly collection since the introduction of the nationwide tax.


13)  Ranjitsinh Disale Appointed as the World Bank Education Advisor

•Ranjitsinh Disale has been appointed as the World Bank Education advisor, starting from June 2021 to June 2024. He is the first Indian to have been awarded the Global Teacher Award in 2020, will now be working on the Coach Project, launched by the World Bank in March 2021. The project’s aim is to ‘help countries accelerate learning by improving teacher professional development.’


14)  A book title ‘1232 km: The Long Journey Home’ by Vinod Kapri

•A new book titled ‘1232 km: The Long Journey Home’ by filmmaker Vinod Kapri chronicles the journey of seven migrant workers from Bihar, who journeyed back home on their bicycles and reached their destination after seven days. The book is published by Harper Collins. The nationwide lockdown in March 2020 forced thousands of migrant workers to return to their native villages by covering thousands of kilometres on foot.


•Kapri accompanied these seven migrant workers — Ritesh, Ashish, Ram Babu, Sonu, Krishna, Sandeep and Mukesh — on their 1,232-km journey from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh to Saharsa in Bihar. It is a story of courage as well as the desperation of seven men braving police lathis and insults, battling hunger and exhaustion to reach their home. According to the author, he was curious to know what makes labourers’ cycle 1,232 kilometres without food or any help in such extreme circumstances. He wanted to see them up close.


15)  Germany’s FIFA World Cup-winner Sami Khedira announces retirement

•Germany’s FIFA World Cup-winner, Sami Khedira has announced retirement. He began his career at VfB Stuttgart and helped them win the league title in the 2006-07 season before moving to Real Madrid, where he won the league and Champions League in a trophy-laden spell. He played 77 games for Germany scoring seven goals and helped them win the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.

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The HINDU Notes – 07th June 2021

20:22

 


๐Ÿ“ฐ Punjab, T.N., Kerala perform well in school education

Gujarat loses ground in Education Ministry’s grading index

•Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have all scored higher than 90% in the Education Ministry’s Performance Grading Index for 2019-20 which was released on Sunday. Gujarat dropped from second to eighth rank in the index, while Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are the only States which have seen actual regression in scores over this period.

•The index monitors the progress that States and Union Territories have made in school education with regard to learning outcomes, access and equity, infrastructure and facilities, and governance and management processes.

Huge jump

•Punjab has recorded the highest score of almost 929 out of a possible 1,000, showing a huge jump from 769 last year. The State topped the charts in terms of equity, infrastructure and governance, and shared the top spot in the domain of access with Kerala. In fact, Punjab overtook the Union Territory of Chandigarh, which had topped both previous editions of the index, but has now slid to second place with a score of 912.

•Tamil Nadu also overtook Kerala, with a score of 906, largely driven by improvements in the State’s educational governance and management, as well as in terms of infrastructure and facilities.

•Gujarat, which had the second highest score in the previous edition, dropped to eighth place. It has regressed in the key domain of access, which measures enrolment of students in school and the ability to keep them from dropping out as well as mainstreaming out-of-school students. Its progress in other areas also did not keep pace with other States.

Lowest score

•Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh saw a glaring drop in their governance scores, pushing both States to an overall performance that was worse than in the previous edition. The new Union Territory of Ladakh was included separately for the first time in this edition, and had the lowest score of just 545.

•This is the third edition of the index and uses 70 indicators to measure progress. Of these, the 16 indicators related to learning outcomes remain unchanged through all three editions, as they are based on data from the 2017 National Achievement Survey, which tested students in Classes 3, 5, 8 and 10. The next NAS was scheduled to be held in 2020, but was postponed because of the pandemic. The remaining 54 parameters use Central databases, collating information from the school and district level, and have been updated for 2018-19.

๐Ÿ“ฐ More anti-bodies produced by Covishield than Covaxin, says study

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THE HINDU NEWSPAPER IMPORTANT ARTICLES 07.06.2021

08:20
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Shankar IAS April 2021 Current Affairs PDF

08:00

Shankar IAS April 2021 Current Affairs PDF

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