The HINDU Notes – 01st November 2019 - VISION

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Friday, November 01, 2019

The HINDU Notes – 01st November 2019





📰 Sex ratio improves in country; birth and death rates dip

Sex ratio improves in country; birth and death rates dip
Total fertility rate in 12 States has fallen below two children per woman

•India has registered an improved sex ratio and a decline in birth and death rates with non-communicable diseases dominating over communicable in the total disease burden of the country, according to the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence’s (CBHI) National Health Profile (NHP) 2019.

•The NHP covers demographic, socio-economic, health status and health finance indicators, human resources in the health sector and health infrastructure. It is also an important source of information on various communicable and non-communicable diseases that are not covered under any other major programmes.

•“This information is essential for health system policy development, governance, health research, human resource development, health education and training,” Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan said.

•As per the NHP, sex ratio (number of females per 1,000 males) in the country has improved from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.

•In rural areas the sex ratio has increased from 946 to 949.

•“The corresponding increase in urban areas has been of 29 points from 900 to 929. Kerala has recorded the highest sex ratio in respect of total population (1,084), rural population (1,078) and urban (1,091). The lowest sex ratio in rural areas has been recorded in Chandigarh (690),” the report said.

•The report also showed that the estimated birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate are declining.

•The estimated birth rate reduced from 25.8 in 2000 to 20.4 in 2016 while the death rate declined from 8.5 to 6.4 per 1,000 population over the same period. The natural growth rate declined from 17.3 in 2000 to 14 in 2016 as per the latest available information.

•As per the report, the total fertility rate (average number of children that will be born to a woman during her lifetime) in 12 States has fallen below two children per woman and nine States have reached replacement levels of 2.1 and above.

•Delhi, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal have the lowest fertility rate among other States.

•It was also observed that non-communicable diseases dominated over the communicable in the total disease burden of the country.

•The NHP also complied a detailed data on health manpower availability in public sector. “The total number of registered allopathic doctors (up to 2018) is 11,54,686. Number of dental surgeons registered with Central/State Dental Councils of India was 2,54,283. There is an increasing trend in the number of dental surgeons registered with the Central/State Dental Council of India from 2007 to 2018. The total number of registered AYUSH Doctors in India as on January 1, 2018 was 7,99,879,” the report noted.

📰 Pakistan violated its obligations under Vienna Convention in Kulbhushan Jadhav’s case: ICJ Judge tells UNGA

International Court of Justice President Judge Abduylqawi Yusuf elaborated on several aspects of the Court’s ruling in Mr. Jadhav’s case while presenting his report to the General Assembly

•Pakistan violated its obligations under the Vienna Convention in the case of Indian national Kulbhushan Jadhav, International Court of Justice (ICJ) President Judge Abduylqawi Yusuf told the UN General Assembly here.

•Presenting the report of the International Court of Justice to the 193-member General Assembly on Wednesday, Mr. Yusuf said in its judgment of July 17, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations found that Pakistan had violated its obligations under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention and that appropriate remedies were due in this case.

•In a major victory for India, the ICJ had ruled that Pakistan must review the death sentence awarded to Mr. Jadhav, a retired Indian Navy officer who was sentenced to death by the Pakistani military court on charges of “espionage and terrorism” after a closed trial in April 2017. India had argued that consular access was being denied to its national in violation of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

•The bench led by Mr. Yusuf had ordered an “effective review and reconsideration of the conviction and sentence of Mr. Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav.

•Mr. Yusuf elaborated on several aspects of the Court’s ruling in Mr. Jadhav’s case while presenting his report to the General Assembly.

•He said one of the issues that the Court had to examine was the question of whether the rights relating to consular access, set out in Article 36 of the Vienna Convention, were in any manner to be excluded in a situation where the individual concerned was suspected of carrying out acts of espionage. The Court noted in that regard that there is no provision in the Vienna Convention containing a reference to cases of espionage; nor does the Article concerning consular access, Article 36, exclude from its scope certain categories of persons, such as those suspected of espionage. Therefore, the Court concluded that Article 36 of the Vienna Convention was applicable in full to the case at hand, he said.

•The Court was also called upon to interpret the meaning of the expression without delay in the notification requirements of Article 36 of the Vienna Convention. The Court noted that in its case, the question of how to determine what was meant by the term without delay depended on the given circumstances of a case.

•Taking into account the particular circumstances of the Jadhav case, the Court noted that Pakistan’s making of the notification some three weeks after Mr. Jadhav’s arrest constituted a breach of its obligation to inform India’s consular post without delay, as required by the provisions of the Vienna Convention, he noted.

•He further said that another interesting legal question that the Court had to address was whether a bilateral agreement on consular access concluded between the two Parties — India and Pakistan — in 2008 could be read as excluding the applicability of the Vienna Convention.

•The Court considered that this was not the case, he said.

•More precisely, the Court noted that under the Vienna Convention, parties were able to conclude only bilateral agreements that confirm, supplement, extend or amplify the provisions of that instrument. Having examined the 2008 Agreement, the Court came to the conclusion that it could not be read as denying consular access in the case of an arrest, detention or sentence made on political or security grounds, and that it did not displace obligations under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention.

•Coming to the crux of the Court’s ruling, he said the Court considered the reparation and remedies to be granted, after it had found that the rights to consular access had been violated.

•“In line with its earlier jurisprudence in other cases dealing with breaches of the Vienna Convention, the Court found that the appropriate remedy was effective review and reconsideration of the conviction and sentence of Mr. Jadhav.

•Mr. Yusuf told the General Assembly that the Court moreover clarified what it considered to be the requirements of effective review and reconsideration.

•It stressed that Pakistan must ensure that full weight is given to the effect of the violation of the rights set forth in the Vienna Convention and guarantee that the violation and the possible prejudice caused by the violation are fully examined.

•While the Court left the choice of means to provide effective review and reconsideration to Pakistan, it noted that effective review and reconsideration presupposes the existence of a procedure that is suitable for this purpose and observed that it is normally the judicial process that is suited to this task.

•Mr. Yusuf said that following its ruling, the Court received a communication dated August 1, 2019 from Pakistan confirming its commitment to implementing the July 17 judgment in full.

•In particular, Pakistan stated that Mr. Jadhav had been immediately informed of his rights under the Vienna Convention and that the consular post of the High Commission of India in Islamabad had been invited to visit him on August 2, 2019, Mr. Yusuf said.

•India had welcomed the verdict of the International Court of Justice, saying that the ruling of the court by a vote of 15-1 upheld India’s position in the case.

📰 Substance across the Arabian Sea

Amid turbulence in West Asia, India-Saudi Arabia ties have not only remained steady but kept their positive trajectory

•Even by its volatile standards, our Southwest Asian sub-region has lately been unusually turbulent, as reflected in issues ranging from India-Pakistan tensions to the approaching denouements of crises in Yemen, Syria and Afghanistan. The oil market, too, has been inclement. Against this disorderly context, it is no small wonder that India-Saudi Arabia relations have not only remained steady, but kept their positive trajectory. Indeed, following their third summit in as many years earlier this week, the respective leaderships should be complimented for their sagacity in focussing on leveraging their intrinsic bilateral synergy instead of chasing the various wild geese. It demonstrates their maturity and strategic construct.

•This is not to claim perfect bilateral harmony: the joint statement was significant not only for covering areas of agreement of the two parties, but circumscribing their well-known differences. Nevertheless, both sides believe that what joins them bilaterally is far more significant. They also realise that this entente cordiale does not only help them attain their bilateral potential, it also widens their respective geostrategic options.

Acknowledging core interests

•Politically, New Delhi and Riyadh acknowledged each other’s core interests and accommodated them. Thus, Saudi Arabia showed an “understanding” of recent Indian actions in Jammu and Kashmir and India “strongly condemned” the various attacks on Saudi civilian facilities. Their bilateral defence, security and anti-terror cooperation has intensified and the first naval exercise is to be held soon.

•The Riyadh Summit acquired added importance as it coincidentally preceded two domestic developments in India with considerable traction in the Islamic world: the conversion of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories that happened on Thursday and the Supreme Court verdict on the Ayodhya dispute.

•Despite vigorous efforts, the bilateral commercial and economic ties have still remained range-bound. Trade has drifted downwards largely due to lower crude prices. According to the latest Indian data, the bilateral trade in the first nine months of 2019 stood at $22,416 million, having fallen by 9.2% over the corresponding figure in 2018. It was 5:1 in kingdom’s favour and was dominated by the traditional commodities, revealing the need for greater Indian export promotion efforts.

•The Saudi investment in India, too, remains far below potential. The kingdom’s cumulative investments in India are only $229 million, or 0.05% of the total inbound FDI. Though the kingdom’s Indian community has come down marginally to 2.6 million, they, nevertheless, are still the largest foreign community and their annual homeward remittances remain steady at $11 billion.

•There is growing room for optimism, however. The kingdom’s Vision 2030, a strategic document, lists eight major partner countries including India, the world’s third largest oil importer. Saudi Aramco is to be one of the two strategic partners in the proposed $44 billion, 1.2 mbpd PSU refinery at Raigarh on India’s west coast. It is also to acquire a fifth of the Reliance refinery at Jamnagar and to participate in India’s Strategic Petroleum Reserves. If realised, these investments could total nearly $30 billion, catapulting the kingdom to fourth position among countries investing in India.

•Earlier, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had committed to investing $100 billion in India. As the 12 bilateral documents signed in Riyadh Summit show, India and Saudi Arabia have already commenced leveraging opportunities across a vast eco-space, from energy to agriculture and from fintech to skilling. In his keenly awaited speech at the Future Investment Initiative forum in Riyadh, Prime Minister Narendra Modi listed five “trends” in India with global investors’ remit: technology and innovation, infrastructure development, human resource development, environment and business-friendly governance. His persuasive narrative is likely to win converts, particularly in the Saudi private sector.

New bilateral council

•Setting up of a bilateral Strategic Partnership Council (SPC) to be co-chaired by the Indian Prime Minister and the Saudi Crown Prince is a defining development. Given the centralised nature of executive at both ends, it would, hopefully, expedite the decision-making process. The SPC would be a permanent bilateral platform with two verticals jointly serviced by the two Foreign and Trade and Industry Ministries.

•Among the potential areas for next stage of bilateral cooperation could be greater bilateral synergy in Indian infrastructure, agriculture, start-ups, skilling and IT. Shifting some labour-intensive establishments from Saudi Arabia to India would serve the respective national priorities by reducing the kingdom’s expatriate population and boosting ‘Make in India’.

•The World Bank’s recently published “Ease of Doing Business” rankings included both India and Saudi Arabia in its ten “most improved economies”. Indian ecstasy at a 14-place jump to the 63rd rank this year would have to be tempered by the knowledge that Saudi Arabia was at the top of the “most improved” economies having leapfrogged 34 places to stand at 62nd rank, one ahead of India. When the sub-region’s two largest, top-performing and complementary economies join hands, shouldn’t the sum be greater than the total of the parts? After the Riyadh Summit, hopes have risen for an emphatic affirmative answer.

📰 India questions WhatsApp after spyware is used for snooping

Those targeted include journalists, lawyers, and Dalit and human rights activists.

•The Centre has sought an explanation from messaging platform WhatsApp after the Facebook-owned company confirmed that some Indian users of its app came under surveillance using an Israeli spyware. Most targeted in India were journalists, Dalit and human rights activists and lawyers.

•WhatsApp filed a complaint in a U.S. court earlier this week attributing the intrusion to NSO Group, an Israeli technology firm, which claims on its website that its products are used “exclusively” by government intelligence and law enforcement agencies “to fight crime and terror.” A WhatsApp spokesperson confirmed to The Hindu that Indian users were among those impacted by the spyware and contacted by the company this week to assist them.

Privacy safeguards

•On Thursday, Information Technology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said the government has asked WhatsAapp to “explain the kind of breach and what it is doing to safeguard the privacy of millions of Indian citizens.”

•He said government agencies had a well-established protocol for interception, which included sanction and supervision from highly ranked officials in Central and State governments, for clearly stated reasons in national interest.

•In an attack on Opposition parties, including the Congress on the issue, Mr. Prasad pointed out to the incidents of bugging of former Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee’s office during the UPA regime and spying on the then Army Chief Gen. V.K. Singh. “These are instances of breach of privacy of highly reputed individuals, for personal whims and fancies of a family,” he stated.

•The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) said the government was committed to protecting fundamental rights of citizens and “reports of breach of privacy of Indian citizens on WhatsApp were attempts to malign the government and are completely misleading.” An MHA official said the government would take strict action against any intermediary responsible for breach of privacy of citizens.





•“It is clarified that the government of India operates strictly as per provisions of law and laid down protocols. There are adequate safeguards to ensure that no innocent citizen is harassed or his privacy breached,” the official said.

•Both the Ministries did not say if any government agency sought NSO’s services.

‘Not very secure’

•Dr. Gulshan Rai, former National Cyber Security Coordinator in the Prime Minister’s Office, said that WhatsApp is not a very secure system. “It is accessed by millions of users the world over through different platforms and tools. Their systems are amenable to breaches due to their own weakness and also because of others. In the past there have been several instances of weakness in their systems. It is very evident that if NSO has exploited weaknesses in their system, their (WhatsApp) systems and checks are very weak,” Dr. Rai told The Hindu.

•Meanwhile, in a response to an RTI request filed by activist Saurav Das on October 23, asking questions over whether or not the government has purchased Pegasus or intends to do so in the future, the MHA stated that it had no information in this regard.

•The use of the spyware in question, named Pegasus, via WhatsApp was first identified in May this year. The spyware exploited a vulnerability in WhatsApp’s video-call feature that allowed attackers to inject the spyware on to phones simply by ringing the number of a target’s device.

•The person did not even have to answer the call. Once Pegasus is installed, it can access the targeted users’ private data, including passwords, contact lists, calendar events, text messages, and live voice calls from popular mobile messaging apps. Following this, the U.S.-based firm announced that it had addressed the vulnerability and issued an update for its application.

Mobiles hit

•In the investigations that followed, WhatsApp found that a total of 1,400 mobile numbers and devices were impacted globally. These included attorneys, journalists, human rights activists, political dissidents, diplomats, and other senior foreign government officials.

•In its complaint filed with the federal court, WhatsApp has stated, “According to public reporting, Defendants’ [NSO Group] clients include, but are not limited to, government agencies in the Kingdom of Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Mexico as well as private entities.”

•Meanwhile, the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto, which had volunteered to help WhatsApp identify cases where the suspected targets of this attack were members of civil society, such as human rights defenders and journalists, said it believed that at least 100 members of civil society, “which is an unmistakable pattern of abuse”, were targeted in these attacks globally.

•This number may grow as more victims come forward, it added. These 100 members were spread across at least 20 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America.

•In an opinion piece written for Washington Post, Will Cathcart, head of WhatsApp, said NSO Group has previously denied any involvement in the attack, stating, “Under no circumstances would NSO Group be involved in the operating … of its technology.”

•“But our investigation found otherwise. Now, we are seeking to hold NSO Group accountable under U.S. state and federal laws, including the US Computer Fraud and Abuse Act,” he said.

•Citizen Lab also pointed out that NSO Group claims it sells its spyware strictly to government clients only, and all of its exports are undertaken in accordance with Israeli government laws and oversight mechanisms. “However, the number of cases in which their technology is used to target members of civil society continues to grow,” it stated.

•“NSO Group spyware is being sold to government clients without appropriate controls over how it is employed by those clients. They are, in turn, using NSO’s technology to hack into the devices of members of civil society, including journalists, lawyers, political opposition, and human rights defenders — with potential lethal consequences,” Citizen Lab said in its report on its website.

📰 Core sector output falls 5.2% in September

Data reflect severity of the slowdown.

•Output of eight core infrastructure industries contracted by 5.2% in September, indicating the severity of the economic slowdown.

•As many as seven of eight core industries saw a contraction in output in September. Coal production fell steeply by 20.5%, crude oil by 5.4%, and natural gas by 4.9%. Output of refinery products (-6.7%), cement (-2.1%), steel (-0.3%), and electricity (-3.7%) too declined.

Sole growth sector

•The only segment to post growth in September was fertilizers, where production increased by 5.4%.

•The eight core sectors expanded by 4.3% in September 2018, according to official data released on Thursday. During the April-September period, the growth of core industries slowed to 1.3%, against 5.5% in the year-earlier period. “This clearly indicates the severity of the ongoing industrial slowdown,” India Ratings and Research said.

•ICRA expects the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) to report a contraction of 2.5-3.5% in September. “In particular, the YoY decline in the output of coal, crude oil and natural gas, is likely to weigh upon the performance of the mining index of the IIP in September. Manufacturing may report a year-over-year contraction in September,” it added.

•Earlier this month, the RBI cut its GDP growth forecast for the current fiscal to 6.1% from the previous estimate of 6.9 % after the first-quarter economic growth slipped to over six-year low of 5 %.

📰 RBI creates new verticals for supervision and regulation

Departments with specialised cadre to go live from today

•Two new departments, with specialised cadre on supervision and regulation within the Reserve Bank of India, will start functioning from November 1, indicating the changes in the central bank’s approach to these two crucial issues of the financial system that has dominated public discourse in recent times.

•These departments have been created by merging the respective supervision and regulation departments on banks, non-banks and cooperative banks. For example, the departments of banking supervision, non-banking supervision and cooperative bank supervision will come under the new vertical- department of supervision. The same will happen for the three regulatory departments.

•The senior-most chief general manager of the department of banking supervision, Jayant Dash, will be CGM-in-charge of the department of supervision. Similarly, the senior-most CGM of the department of bank regulation, Saurav Sinha, will be the CGM in-charge of the department of regulation.

•Executive director Lily Vadera will remain in-charge of department of regulation. She was handling all the three regulatory departments so far.

•The executive director (ED) looking after banking supervision, Uma Shankar, retired on October 31. The executive director of non-banking and cooperative bank supervision is Rabi Mishra. It is to be seen if the department of supervision will have only one ED in-charge. Central bank sources indicated that there could be more than one executive director for the department of supervision, given the scope of the work.

•The need to have separate verticals on banking regulation and supervision with specialised officers was mooted in the board meeting of Reserve Bank of India, in Chennai, on May 21 this year.

•The Chennai board meeting discussed the medium-term strategy of the central bank and reviewed the present structure of supervision in RBI ‘in the context of the growing diversity, complexities and interconnectedness within the Indian financial sector.’

•In a statement following the board meeting, RBI said, “With a view to strengthening the supervision and regulation of commercial banks, urban cooperative banks and non-banking financial companies, the board decided to create a specialised supervisory and regulatory cadre within the RBI.”

•The need to strengthen the regulatory and the supervisory departments of RBI was felt following several malpractices among financial institutions - like the Nirav Modi scam in Punjab National Bank or IL&FS crisis. The supervisory apparatus of RBI was unable to detect the financial irregularities which remained unnoticed for a long time.

📰 Deciphering Greta’s climate message

There is more to the Swedish teenager-activist’s point of view than mere emotion and passionate commitment

•She is being looked at as an emotionally charged icon of environmental struggles, but there is more to Greta Thunberg’s point of view than mere emotion and passionate commitment. If we decipher all the issues raised in her brief presentation at the UN General Assembly, we can notice how it expands the familiar contours of the discussion over climate change. Some of the issues she raised were a regular feature in many debates over natural resources, but there were other, new issues as well.

•One well-recognised issue is the direct connection between economic growth and the state of the environment. Devotees of speedy and high economic growth have been indifferent to the limits that nature imposes on the theoretical scope of growth. Nearly half a century has passed since the idea of ‘limits to growth’ was recognised and proposed as a ground for change in development policies. Apparently, political leaders and the civil servants who serve them do not feel constrained by that idea. The younger ones may not be acquainted with the 1972 report wherein the paradox of economic development was examined.

Victims of indifference

•“All you can talk about is money and fairy tales of economic growth,” Ms. Thunberg told her audience at the UN headquarters in New York. She accused world leaders of ignoring or deliberately looking away from the responsibility they have towards the young today and in the future. Her argument would have pleased Mahatma Gandhi. He too thought that economics concerned solely with wealth undermines ethical responsibilities. It ignores justice as a primary human yearning and, in today’s terminology, a right.

•This was also the underlying theme of Ms. Thunberg’s presentation to the leaders and representatives of different countries. She presented herself as a victim of their indifference to climate change. “You have stolen my childhood with your empty words,” she said. As an activist-teenager, she had reasons to feel that way. Her campaign on climate change had cost her more than just school attendance.

•Being young implies being part of a future. Ms. Thunberg was referring to the collective future of those who are young today and also to future generations. These futures are bleak — not in the context in which economic slowdown affect prospects of prosperity and comfort. Ms. Thunberg’s focus was on climate change, a composite idea that imparts bleakness to everybody’s future. She suggested that higher income or status would not help to avoid the consequences of climate change. That is an important point, and not everyone today is convinced about its correctness. Not only the richer nations, but also the richer people in every nation continue to believe that they can buy relief and escape from the consequences of climate change for their progeny.

•It is in adult-child relations that Ms. Thunberg struck a new, unfamiliar note. It is hardly surprising that this aspect of her presentation has elicited no commentary. One reason is its novelty; another is the unsettling nature of her point. Human beings are used to deriving hope from their progeny. Children give us a sense of continuity, a symbolic conquest over death. They also give us the prospect of our unfinished tasks being pursued after us. As parents, we not only want to do the best for our children, but we also want their lives to go beyond ours in terms of worldly gains and fulfilment.

Childhoods stymied

•Parents invest huge amounts of money in their children’s education to make sure that they lead better lives. So do nations. Their leaders talk eloquently about the younger generation taking the nation forward. Societies expect their long-pending problems to be solved by members of the young generation, with their creative and intellectual strength. It was this sentiment that Ms. Thunberg was referring to when she said: “You all come to us young people for hope. How dare you!”

•Ms. Thunberg reminded her audience that carbon emissions are crippling the capacities of the young in the early years. This is a familiar note to us in India. In cities like Delhi, doctors have been warning us that children suffering from asthma cannot be expected to have a normal adolescence and youth. The limits that air and water pollution place upon a young person’s health and capacities are all too palpable to citizens in many parts of India. What Ms. Thunberg did was to place these limits in a newer, more public context.

•It is easy to miss her message or misconstrue it because her presentation was strident. While she was so visibly emotional during her brief speech, her message was that we must stop being emotional about our children. Although she was addressing an audience of political leaders, she wanted all of us to recognise and accept the bitter truth that we — and those who represent us — have compromised the future of our children. It is not the distant generations that will face the consequences of climate change. No, the crisis is already upon us. It will unfold in the lives of those who are growing up today. The steps currently under consideration for containing the consequences of climate change are far too inadequate to cope with the crisis. And even these modest steps are being taken with great reluctance, which proves Ms. Thunberg’s point was that we are not mentally ready to accept the challenge.

•It is perhaps obvious that Ms. Thunberg was not speaking on behalf of the children and youth in any particular country. She was representing the voice of the young in a generic sense. This is a paradox worth dwelling on. Among millions of teenagers like her, not all are as apprehensive about the impending future. Nor is everybody as dissatisfied or disgusted with the hypocrisy of politicians and the policies they have framed, nationally or globally. Indeed, the contrary may be true and youngsters like her may be an exception. The growth-centric model of progress and the promise of greater production of consumer goods probably appeals to the vast population of the young in many countries today. They might also feel quite confident that their leaders will find the way forward against climate change Nationalist sentiments do inspire a vast section of the young to have positive feelings when it comes to the future.

•Ms. Thunberg does not represent this vast crowd. But she does represent the young in a deeper, generic sense as she is someone who has overcome the illusions that childhood and adolescence usually create, often in the garb of idealism. Her Swedish education has made her critically aware of what is going on, imparting to her a sense of urgency and impatience to act. This is not exactly an exceptional case. Nor is Ms. Thunberg alone any more. In many countries, countless children have begun to identify with her. Thanks to the new curricular initiatives taken in all national systems of education, school-going children know a lot more about the meaning of climate change than their parents have the leisure to learn.

•It is the adults and older people today who might feel rattled by Ms. Thunberg’s speech. When she spoke in the UN General Assembly, many in the audience could be heard laughing. They saw her more as a spectacle than as a real person. They were accustomed to routine expressions of concern about climate change.

•Many such leaders are quite pleased with the efforts by the UN and its various bodies to pursue the policies related to sustainable development. They find long, comfortable targets for reduction of carbon emissions quite sufficient and satisfactory. We can hardly imagine that Ms. Thunberg woke them up. If that were possible, we wouldn’t be where we are in our encounter with nature’s fury for which we have coined the euphemism of ‘climate change’.




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