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Showing posts with label oliveboard. Show all posts
Showing posts with label oliveboard. Show all posts

Friday, December 07, 2018

History Notes for Civil Services Preparation 2019

07:02
Preparing for UPSC 2019? Today, we bring to you, important history notes that would be helpful in your preparation. This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government and banking exams.
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Tuesday, October 30, 2018

UPSC 2019 Prelims Study Notes: Important International Organizations

11:24


Here we present the list of important international organizations which were recently in news and very important from the point of view of UPSC Civil Services Exam 2019. Comprehensive information is presented, and comparative study is suggested. This list is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government, banking and MBA exams.
1. Shanghai Cooperation Agreement
  • SCO is an economic political and military organisation.
  •  Established in 2001 in Shanghai with 6 countries China, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Earlier it was Shanghai Five Grouping formed in 1996 without Uzbekistan.
  •  Head Quarters at Beijing, China.
  •  India and Pakistan became full members at the 2017 summit held at Astana, Kazakhstan.
  •   Now SCO represents 40 percent world population and 20 percent world GDP.
  •   It has 4 members with observer status viz.Afghanistan Belarus, Iran and Mongolia.
  •  The SCO membership offers a platform for India to engage Pakistan in a wider regional setting.
  • RATS: India can deepen its defence cooperation with the SCO and its Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure (RATS) that specifically deals with issues relating to security and defence.
  • India's inclusion may even lower Beijing’s overarching influence over the SCO.
  •  Next Summit is scheduled to be held in June 2018 at Qingdao, China .
2. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
  • It was formed on June 6 1997 and on June 6 2017 it celebrated 20 years since its formation
  •  The countries in the grouping are India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
  •  Permanent Secretariat is in Dhaka established in 2014. It consists of 22 percent of world population.
  •  It is a bridge between South Asia and Southeast Asia and with SAARC’s falling prominence due to Pakistan’s cross border terrorism BIMSTEC gained lot of importance.
  •  Indian Perspective: It helps in developing NORTHEASTERN India.
  •  Like Motor Vehicle Agreement signed with BBIN India envisages same with BIMSTEC which can help movement of goods people and services.
  • BIMSTEC region has huge natural water resources and also hydropower potential in the Himalayan region.
  • It does not have written charter unlike SAARC and hence it is flexible.
  •  The Free trade Agreement proposed in 1998 did not come into force and the region is posed with challenges like refugee issues and ethnic tension.
3. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • ASEAN started with the members - Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore
  •  Established on 8th August 1967 -Bangkok, Thailand.
  •  Others who joined in order-Brunei, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar, Cambodia.
  •  ASEAN as a group is 6th largest economy with 4.4 million hectares and 3.3 percent in land.
  • ASEAN Infrastructure Fund: For funding infrastructure from 2011 to 2020.
  •  The ASEAN economic community blueprint 2025 overwrites its previous AEC and addresses in areas like non trade barriers and trade in services.
ASEAN Summit 2017
  • 31st summit in Manila, Philippines.
  • Theme-Parting for change engaging the future.
  • 15th Indian ASEAN summit and RCEP took place during the Summit
  •  Kaladana project in Myanmar-India promised to help building it.
  • MODI gave 2 rice seed varieties to INTERNATIONAL GENE bank to International RICE research INSTI to reduce global hunger.
Importance:
  • ASEAN has played a crucial role of contributing to political and economic stability in the region.
  • India signed a FTA in goods in 2009 and an FTA in services and investments in 2014 with ASEAN.
  •  India has a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) with various countries of the ASEAN region which has resulted in concessional trade and a rise in investments.
  •  Two decades of the Look East Policy, now renamed as Act East Policy by the government, have brought some positive results for India in making ASEAN an important regional partner.
Challenges:
·    ASEAN Countries see India as an alternative to the growing disturbances in South China Sea.
·    Members have failed to negotiate on Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea.
·    They have 10 different tax systems in place.

Venue of 2018 ASEAN Summit: Singapore

4. QUADRILATERAL Meeting
  • Japan proposed a Quadrilateral and US endorsed plan to form the grouping along India and Australia to provide alternative debt financing for countries in the Indo-Pacific.
  •  THEME: Free and Open Indo-Pacific
  •  Promotes Peace, Prosperity and Stability
  •   India highlighted its Act East Policy as the cornerstone of its engagement in the Indo-Pacific region
  • Also Britain and France are proposed to enter the grouping.
  • The grouping is seen as building a strategic partnership to deal with China’s rise and its implications, which could clearly not be countered with India’s ‘neighbourhood first’ policy.
Challenges:
  •  Inclusion of global players in neighbourhood may come with opposition from neighbours including China.
  •  India is a member of EAST ASSIAN Summit with other Quad members but not a part of APEC and can be a problem for its effective working in Indo Pacific.
  •  Indian Ocean will now have presence of US if not China.
5. BRICS
  • JIM'o'NIel in 2001 first used the word. It has Brazil,Russia,India China and South Africa as its members
  • Headquarters at Shanghai, China
  • 1st meeting was held in Yekaterinburg Russia in 2006 between foreign ministers. In 2009 South Africa joined in 2011 Sanya, China in 3rd meeting
  •  40 percent population 45 percent of world growth since 2009, 23 percent GDP of world.
  •   New Development Bank (NDB) -treaty signed in 2014 and came into force in 2015.
       Headquarters-Shanghai , China
President- KV Kamath
It shall support public or private projects through loans guarantees equity participation and other financial instruments
  • Recent summits:
2017 - in XIAMEN China in September.
Theme: Stronger Partnership for a Brighter Future
Declaration: BRICS action agenda on economic and trade cooperation supporting inter market linkages and financial integration.
Strategic framework of BRICS Customs Cooperation for sharing and assistance in Customs control.
Coordination Centre of BRICS Agriculture will be established in India.
Action Plan for 2017-2020 for enhancing research in ICT 5G, Nanotechnology and Internet of things.


2018 - 10th summit will be in Johannesburg South Africa.
Hope this helps. Now, ace the UPSC Prelims 2019 with Oliveboard Mocks!
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Thursday, May 10, 2018

UPSC 2018 Notes: Disaster Management | Environment

13:34

Disaster Management under Environment is one of the important topics for UPSC Civil Services preparation. Questions have been asked in every year’s UPSC Prelims exam on Disaster Management. Therefore, we bring to you Disaster Management Notes on NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN. This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government and banking exams.

NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN – HISTORY

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released in 2016.
The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) is prepared by the National Disaster Management Authority.

National Disaster Management Authority, abbreviated as NDMA is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs whose primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response in India. NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act enacted by the Government of India on May 30, 2005. 

The National Disaster Management Plan of India provides a framework and direction to thegovernment agencies for all phases of disaster management cycle –
a) mitigation (prevention and risk reduction)
b) preparedness
c) response
d) recovery.
The NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) is a “dynamic document” in the sense that it will be periodically improved keeping up with the emerging global best practices and knowledge base in disaster management.
The NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) is based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
Sendai Framework is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis
The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:
1. Understanding disaster risk
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) Vision
Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities
For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities given in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Actions:
· Understanding Risk
· Inter-Agency Coordination
· Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
· Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
· Capacity Development
Major Highlights of the National Disaster Management Plan
· All phases of disaster management: Prevention, Mitigation, Response and Recovery have been extensively covered in the plan.
· The Plan also covers Man-made disasters in India like Chemical, nuclear, etc
·  It gives clear framework about Planning. It covers Short-term (5 years), Medium Term (10 years) and Long-term (15 years) to deal with all kinds of disasters happening in India.
· The Plan has adopted a very Integrative Approach – horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and departments of the Government have been specified in the Plan.
· The Role Clarity shown in the Plan is excellent – roles and responsibilities of all levels of Government of India right up to Panchayat and Urban local body level in a matrix format.
· Different types of Disasters have been assigned to specific Ministries of Government of India. For e.g., Ministry of Earth Sciences is responsible for Cyclones
· The Regional approach adopted in the Plan will be beneficial for disaster management as well as Developmental planning of India
· The Implementing of the Plan will be done in a scalable manner through all phases of Disaster Management
· The Plan has covered the response phase of disaster management in wholesome manner by identifying 18 broad activities which have been arranged into a matrix to be served as a ready reckoner across India:
o Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information      Dissemination
o Evacuation of People and Animals
o  Search and Rescue of People and Animals
o   Medical Care
o Drinking Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
o  Food & Essential Supplies
o  Communication
o  Housing and Temporary Shelters
o  Power
o  Fuel
o  Transportation
o  Relief Logistics and Supply Chain Management
o  Disposal of Animal Carcasses
o  Fodder for livestock in scarcity-hit areas
o Rehabilitation and Ensuring Safety of Livestock and other Animals, Veterinary Care
o  Data Collection and Management
o  Relief Employment
o  Media Relations

· A generalised framework for recovery and flexibility to assess a situation and build back better have been provided in the Plan as well.
· It emphasises on a greater need for Information, Education and Communication activities to prepare communities to cope with disasters.
· The plan aims that the media should respect the dignity and privacy of affected people. Hence it calls for self-regulation by media.
· To stop rumours and spread of panic, the plan directs the authorities to schedule regular media briefing (depending on the severity of the disaster) and designate a nodal officer for interacting with the media on behalf of the government
We hope you liked the information provided about National Disaster Management Plan and these Disaster Management Notes are useful for your UPSC Exam Preparation.
All the Best for the UPSC Prelims Exam 2018!!
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

UPSC Study Notes 2018: Important Bills to Remember!

09:27

This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government, banking and MBA exams.

The bills passed (and / or pending) in the parliament are an important form an important part of the topic of ‘governance’, which itself is an important subject for the UPSC CSE (Civil Services/ IAS Exam). This blog post covers some of the most important bills passed (and / or pending) in the parliament in the recent times.

1. The HIV And AIDS (Prevention & Control) Bill, 2014 [Passed]
  • The bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on February 11, 2014 by the Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Mr. Ghulam Nabi Azad.
  • It seeks to : prevent and control the spread of HIV and AIDS, prohibits discrimination against persons with HIV and AIDS, provides for informed consent and confidentiality with regard to their treatment, places obligations on establishments to safeguard their rights, and creates mechanisms for redressing their complaints.
  • It lists the various grounds on which discrimination against HIV positive persons and those living with them is prohibited.  These include the denial, termination, discontinuation or unfair treatment with regard to: (i) employment, (ii) educational establishments, (iii) health care services, (iv) residing or renting property, (v) standing for public or private office, and (vi) provision of insurance (unless based on actuarial studies).  The requirement for HIV testing as a pre-requisite for obtaining employment or accessing health care or education is also prohibited.
  • Every HIV infected or affected person below the age of 18 years has the right to reside in a shared household and enjoy the facilities of the household.  The Bill also prohibits any individual from publishing information or advocating feelings of hatred against HIV positive persons and those living with them.
  • The Bill requires that no HIV test, medical treatment, or research will be conducted on a person without his informed consent. Establishments keeping records of information of HIV positive persons shall adopt data protection measures.
2. The Integrated Goods & Services Tax Bill, 2017 [Passed]
  • The Integrated Goods and Services Tax Bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on March 27, 2017.  The Bill provides for the levy of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) by the centre on inter-state supply of goods and services.
  • Levy of IGST:  The centre will levy IGST in the case of (i) inter-state supply of goods and services, (ii) imports and exports, and (iii) supplies to and from special economic zones.  Supply includes sale, transfer, exchange and lease made for a consideration to further a business.  In addition, IGST will be levied on any supply which will not fall under the purview of the Central and State GST Acts.
  • Tax rates: IGST will be levied at a rate recommended by the GST Council.  The tax rate will be capped at 40%.
  • Exemptions from IGST: The centre may exempt certain goods and services from the purview of IGST through a notification.  This will be based on the recommendations of the GST Council.
  • The GST is expected to add 2% to the country’s GDP, besides making the movement of goods easier across states. Because so far taxes have varied across states, often commercial trucks have had to go through multiple checkpoints to obtain the necessary permits and pay several taxes to the states they pass on their routes, which causes delays and encourages bribery. A uniform tax will make that movement of commercial products smoother.
3.The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill, 2013
  • The Bill provides for mandatory registration of all projects with the Real Estate Regulatory Authority in each State.
  • It makes mandatory the disclosure of all information for registered projects like details of promoters, layout plan, land status, schedule of execution and status of various approvals.
  • It seeks to enforce the contract between the developer and buyer and act as a fast track mechanism to settle disputes.
  • 50% of the buyers’ investment has to be deposited into an escrow account that would be used only for the construction of that project.
  • The Bill prohibits a developer from changing the plan in a project unless two-thirds of the allottees have agreed for such a change.
  • Builders would be responsible for fixing structural defects for five years after transferring the property to a buyer.
  • In case builders still cause delays in transferring properties to buyers, the appellate tribunals would intervene and slap fines on them within 60 days.
4. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill, 2016 [Passed]
  • The Act provides maternity leave up to 12 weeks for all women. The Bill extends this period to 26 weeks. However, a woman with two or more children will be entitled to 12 weeks of maternity leave.
  • The Bill introduces maternity leave up to 12 weeks for a woman who adopts a child below the age of three months, and for commissioning mothers. The period of maternity leave will be calculated from the date the child is handed over to the adoptive or commissioning mother.
  • The Bill requires every establishment with 50 or more employees to provide for crèche facilities within a prescribed distance. The woman will be allowed four visits to the crèche in a day.
  • An employer may permit a woman to work from home, if the nature of work assigned permits her to do so. This may be mutually agreed upon by the employer and the woman.
  • The Bill requires an establishment to inform a woman of all benefits that would be available under the Bill, at the time of her appointment. Such information must be given in writing and electronically.
5. The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
  • The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016 was introduced by Minister of Health and Family Welfare, Mr. J. P. Nadda in Lok Sabha on November 21, 2016.
  • Purposes for which surrogacy is permitted:  Surrogacy is permitted when it is, (i) for intending couples who suffer from proven infertility; and (ii) altruistic; and (iii) not for commercial purposes; and (iv) not for producing children for sale, prostitution or other forms of exploitation.
  • The intending couple should have a ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ issued by the appropriate authority.
  • The certificate of eligibility is issued upon fulfilment of the following conditions by the intending couple: (i) Indian citizens and are married for at least five years; (ii) between 23 to 50 years old female and 26 to 55 years old male; (iii) they do not have any surviving child (biological, adopted or surrogate); this would not include a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from life threatening disorder or fatal illness.  Other conditions may be specified by regulations.
  • Eligibility criteria for surrogate mother:  To obtain a certificate of eligibility from the appropriate authority, the surrogate mother has to: (i) be a close relative of the intending couple; (ii) be an ever married woman having a child of her own; (iii) be 25 to 35 years old; (iv) be a surrogate only once in her lifetime; and (iv) possess a certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy.
6. The Finance Bill, 2017 [Passed]
  • As per Finance Bill, 2017, it will now be compulsory to have an Aadhaar (from July 1, 2017) in order to file income tax returns and to obtain and retain PAN, or permanent account number. The aim is to put curbs on instances of issuing multiple PAN to a single individual. Further, quoting of Aadhaar number would restrict granting of subsidies to only those individuals who are eligible to claim it.
  • The amendments to the bill propose to remove: (i) the limit of 7.5% of net profit of the last three financial years, for contributions that a company may make to political parties, (ii) the requirement of a company to disclose the name of the political parties to which a contribution has been made. In addition, contributions to political parties will have to be made only through a cheque, bank draft, electronic means, or any other scheme notified by the government to make contributions to political parties.
  • The threshold limit of cash payments has been decreased from Rs. 3 lakhs to 2 lakhs.
  • Certain Tribunals are proposed to be replaced, and their functions are proposed to be taken over by existing Tribunals under other Acts
7. The Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Fifth Ordinance, 2016 [Ordinance : In Force]
  • The Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Fifth Ordinance, 2016 was promulgated on December 22, 2016. 
  • The central government had designated some properties belonging to nationals of Pakistan and China as ‘enemy properties’ during the 1962, 1965 and 1971 conflicts.  It vested these properties in the ‘Custodian of Enemy Property’, an office under the central government.  The 1968 Act regulates these enemy properties.
  • Definition of enemy:  The 1968 Act defined an ‘enemy’ as a country (and its citizens) that committed external aggression against India (i.e., Pakistan and China).  The Ordinance expands this definition to include: (i) legal heirs of enemies even if they are citizens of India or of another country which is not an enemy, (ii) nationals of an enemy country who subsequently changed their nationality to that of another country, etc.
8. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016
  • The Bill defines a transgender person as one who is partly female or male; or a combination of female and male; or neither female nor male.  In addition, the person’s gender must not match the gender assigned at birth, and includes trans-men, trans-women, persons with intersex variations and gender-queers.
  • A transgender person must obtain a certificate of identity as proof of recognition of identity as a transgender person and to invoke rights under the Bill. 
  • The Bill prohibits discrimination against a transgender person in areas such as education, employment, and healthcare.  It directs the central and state governments to provide welfare schemes in these areas.
  • Offences like compelling a transgender person to beg, denial of access to a public place, physical and sexual abuse, etc. would attract up to two years’ imprisonment and a fine.
Hope this helps.
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