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Showing posts with label upsc 2018. Show all posts
Showing posts with label upsc 2018. Show all posts

Sunday, June 03, 2018

UPSC PRELIMS PAPER II QUESTION PAPER 3RD JUNE 2018

UPSC GS Prelims 2018 Question Paper Pdf

Thursday, May 24, 2018

Polity Current Affairs Revision Prelims 2018 Pdf

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Friday, May 18, 2018

VisionIAS PT - 365 Updated classroom material (March - April 2018) Pdf

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Thursday, May 10, 2018

UPSC 2018 Notes: Disaster Management | Environment

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Disaster Management under Environment is one of the important topics for UPSC Civil Services preparation. Questions have been asked in every year’s UPSC Prelims exam on Disaster Management. Therefore, we bring to you Disaster Management Notes on NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN. This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government and banking exams.

NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN – HISTORY

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released in 2016.
The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) is prepared by the National Disaster Management Authority.

National Disaster Management Authority, abbreviated as NDMA is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs whose primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response in India. NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act enacted by the Government of India on May 30, 2005. 

The National Disaster Management Plan of India provides a framework and direction to thegovernment agencies for all phases of disaster management cycle –
a) mitigation (prevention and risk reduction)
b) preparedness
c) response
d) recovery.
The NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) is a “dynamic document” in the sense that it will be periodically improved keeping up with the emerging global best practices and knowledge base in disaster management.
The NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) is based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
Sendai Framework is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis
The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:
1. Understanding disaster risk
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) Vision
Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities
For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities given in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Actions:
· Understanding Risk
· Inter-Agency Coordination
· Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
· Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
· Capacity Development
Major Highlights of the National Disaster Management Plan
· All phases of disaster management: Prevention, Mitigation, Response and Recovery have been extensively covered in the plan.
· The Plan also covers Man-made disasters in India like Chemical, nuclear, etc
·  It gives clear framework about Planning. It covers Short-term (5 years), Medium Term (10 years) and Long-term (15 years) to deal with all kinds of disasters happening in India.
· The Plan has adopted a very Integrative Approach – horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and departments of the Government have been specified in the Plan.
· The Role Clarity shown in the Plan is excellent – roles and responsibilities of all levels of Government of India right up to Panchayat and Urban local body level in a matrix format.
· Different types of Disasters have been assigned to specific Ministries of Government of India. For e.g., Ministry of Earth Sciences is responsible for Cyclones
· The Regional approach adopted in the Plan will be beneficial for disaster management as well as Developmental planning of India
· The Implementing of the Plan will be done in a scalable manner through all phases of Disaster Management
· The Plan has covered the response phase of disaster management in wholesome manner by identifying 18 broad activities which have been arranged into a matrix to be served as a ready reckoner across India:
o Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information      Dissemination
o Evacuation of People and Animals
o  Search and Rescue of People and Animals
o   Medical Care
o Drinking Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
o  Food & Essential Supplies
o  Communication
o  Housing and Temporary Shelters
o  Power
o  Fuel
o  Transportation
o  Relief Logistics and Supply Chain Management
o  Disposal of Animal Carcasses
o  Fodder for livestock in scarcity-hit areas
o Rehabilitation and Ensuring Safety of Livestock and other Animals, Veterinary Care
o  Data Collection and Management
o  Relief Employment
o  Media Relations

· A generalised framework for recovery and flexibility to assess a situation and build back better have been provided in the Plan as well.
· It emphasises on a greater need for Information, Education and Communication activities to prepare communities to cope with disasters.
· The plan aims that the media should respect the dignity and privacy of affected people. Hence it calls for self-regulation by media.
· To stop rumours and spread of panic, the plan directs the authorities to schedule regular media briefing (depending on the severity of the disaster) and designate a nodal officer for interacting with the media on behalf of the government
We hope you liked the information provided about National Disaster Management Plan and these Disaster Management Notes are useful for your UPSC Exam Preparation.
All the Best for the UPSC Prelims Exam 2018!!
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Friday, April 27, 2018

Geography for UPSC 2018: Syllabus & Books

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Preparing for UPSC 2018? Here’s a detailed syllabus and go to books that you should refer to master Geography for UPSC 2018. This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government and banking exams.

UPSC Geography Syllabus

The revised syllabus of UPSC has mentioned UPSC geography syllabus in following words.
“Indian & World Geography: Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India & the World”
 The syllabus has clearly divided Geography into 2 components – Indian Geography and World Geography.
The Topics covered in the 2 components as given the following table.

Indian Geography
World Geography
Physiography of India
Atmosphere, its structure and components.
River Systems of India
World Climate with focus on major world climatic phenomena like Planetary winds, Clouds, Cyclones etc.
Climate
Geomorphic processes like Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Weathering, Erosion and Gradational processes and their associated landform features
Mineral Wealth of India
Major World Biomes, their components and features.
Soil & Soil Types in India
World Resources and their distribution
Agriculture
World Industries and their distribution
Forests
Major World Crops and Farming systems
Wildlife & Conservation
World Map related questions
Human Geography
World oceans and related processes like Ocean currents, tides
Universe related questions including topics like Solar system; earth and its movements;
asteroids, comets and meteors; satellites etc.
Disasters, like Tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, droughts.

More Question have been asked on Indian Geography as compared to world Geography. Hence you should prioritize your studies accordingly.All the topics mentioned about should be understood properly and the facts mentioned should be analysed with concepts given.

Books and Sources for UPSC Geography Preparation
· NCERT Books from 6th to 12th (Special focus should be on 11th and 12th NCERT’s)
·  C Leong’s Physical Geography
· General Studies Guide for Prelims, either from TMH or Arihant or Spectrum or Pearson
· Oxford Student atlas (do not confuse it with Oxford School Atlas)
· Orient Black Swann School Atlas (do not confuse it with Orient Black Swann Student Atlas)
· Various reports from Govt and NGO’s like Forest report, Agriculture census, HDI report, etc.
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Thursday, April 19, 2018

UPSC Complete Study Notes: Biosphere Reserves of India

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This post is brought to you by Oliveboard, an online exam preparation platform for government, banking and MBA exams.

Biosphere reserves of India form an important topic for the UPSC CSE preparation. This blog post covers all important points about it.

Definition of Biosphere Reserves
· Biosphere Reserve (BR) is an international designation by UNESCO for representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof.
· BRs are thus special environments for both people and the nature and are living examples of how human beings and nature can co-exist while respecting each others’ needs.
· These areas are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme, after receiving consent of the participating country.
Functions of Biosphere Reserves
Some functions of Biosphere Reserves are:
Conservation
•To ensure the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variations.
• To encourage the traditional resource use systems
•To understand the patterns and processes of functioning of ecosystems
• To monitor the natural and human-caused changes on spatial and temporal scales
Development
• To promote, at the local level, economic development which is culturally, socially and ecologically sustainable.
• To develop the strategies leading to improvement and management of natural resources
Logistics Support
• To provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development
• Sharing of knowledge generated by research through site specific training and education; and
• Development of community spirit in the management of natural resources.

National Biosphere Reserve Programme
India has created a network of protected areas in the form of 96 National Parks, 510 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 28 Tiger Reserves and 25 Elephant Reserves. The area covered under protected area network accounts for around 5% of the total geographical area of the country. The rich biodiversity in India has given shape to variety of cultural and ethnic diversity which includes over 550 tribal communities of 227 ethnic groups spread over 5,000 forest villages.
The national Biosphere Reserve Programme was initiated in 1986 and its aims and objectives are described in the following sections.

Aims of the Scheme
• To serve as wider base for conservation of entire range of living resources and their ecological foundations in addition to already established protected area network system
• To bring out representative ecosystems under conservation and sustainable use on a long-term basis.
• To ensure participation of local inhabitants for effective management and devise means of improving livelihood of the local inhabitants through sustainable use.
• To integrate scientific research with traditional knowledge of conservation, education and training as a part of the overall management of BR.

Objectives of the Scheme
It must be noted that BRs are not a substitute or alternative, but a re-enforcement to the existing protected areas. The objectives of the Biosphere Reserve programme are as follows:
• To conserve the diversity and integrity of plants and animals within natural ecosystems
• To safeguard genetic diversity of species on which their continuing evolution depends; • To provide areas for multi-faceted research and monitoring
• To provide facilities for education and training; and
• To ensure sustainable use of natural resources through most appropriate technology for improvement of economic well-being of the local people.

Criteria for Selection of Biosphere Reserves
The criteria for selection of sites for BRs are listed below:-

Primary Criteria
• A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation and should include additional land and water suitable for research and demonstration of sustainable methods of research and management.
• The core area should be typical of a biogeographical unit and large enough to sustain viable populations representing all tropic levels in the ecosystem.

Secondary Criteria
• Areas having rare and endangered species
• Areas having diversity of soil and micro-climatic conditions and indigenous varieties of biota.
• Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of environment.
 
Structure and Design of Biosphere Reserves
In order to undertake complementary activities of biodiversity conservation and development of sustainable management aspects, Biosphere Reserves are demarcated into three inter-related zones. These are:-
(I)   Natural or Core Zone
The core zone is kept absolutely undisturbed. It must contain suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including higher order predators and may contain centres of endemism. Core areas often conserve the wild relatives of economic species and also represent important genetic reservoirs. The core zones also contain places of exceptional scientific interest. A core zone secures legal protection and management and research activities that do not affect natural processes and wildlife are allowed. Strict nature reserves and wilderness portions of the area are designated as core areas of BR. The core zone is to be kept free from all human pressures external to the system.
(II)  Manipulation or Buffer Zone
In the Buffer Zone, which adjoins or surrounds core zone, uses and activities are managed in ways that protect the core zone. These uses and activities include restoration, demonstration sites for enhancing value addition to the resources, limited recreation, tourism, fishing and grazing, which are permitted to reduce its effect on core zone. Research and educational activities are to be encouraged. Human activities, if natural within BR, are likely to be permitted to continue if these do not adversely affect the ecological diversity.
(III) Transition Zone Outside the Buffer Zone
The Transition Zone is the outermost part of a Biosphere Reserve. This is usually not delimited one and is a zone of cooperation where conservation, knowledge and management skills are applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the Biosphere Reserve. This includes settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive recreation, and other economic uses characteristic of the region.
In Buffer Zone and the Transition Zones, manipulative macro-management practices are used. Experimental research areas are used for understanding the patterns and processes in the ecosystem. Modified or degraded landscapes are included as rehabilitation areas to restore the ecology in a way that it returns to sustainable productivity.
List of Biosphere Reserves of India
Nine of the eighteen biosphere reserves of India are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (* marked in the above image), based on the UNESCO MAN and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.
How Biosphere Reserves are different from protected areas such as National Parks (NP) and Wildlife Sanctuaries(WS)?
It must be noted that the BR is not intended to replace existing protected areas but to widen the scope of conventional approach of protection and further strengthens the Protected Area Network. Existing legally protected areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiger Reserve and reserve/protected forests) may become part of the BR without any change in their legal status. On the other hand, inclusion of such areas in a BR will enhance their national value.
 However, the Biosphere Reserves differ from protected areas due to their emphasis on :
(i) Conservation of overall biodiversity and landscape, rather than some specific flagship species, to allow natural and evolutionary processes to continue without any hindrance.
(ii) Different components of BRs like landscapes, habitats, and species and land races.
(iii) Developmental activities, and resolution/mitigation of conflicts between development and conservation,
(iv) Increase in broad-basing of stakeholders, especially local people’s participation and their Training, compared to the features of scheme on Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks.
(v) Sustainable environment friendly development, and sustained coordination amongst different development organizations and agencies.
(vi) Research and Monitoring to understand the structure and functioning of ecological system and their mode of reaction when exposed to human intervention
Hope this gives you all the information you need.
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